Electrical safety measures in the home, outdoors and at work. Protection against electric and electromagnetic fields.

Compliance with electrical safety measures in everyday life, outside the home and at work is vitally important. Not a single electric injury from the operation of electric shavers is known. Of household appliances, washing machines are the most dangerous. They are installed in a humid room, near the water supply, and the electric cable is usually thrown simply onto the floor. 

Electrical safety measures in the home, outdoors and at work. Protection against electric and electromagnetic fields.

Electric heaters are dangerous. Electrical appliances having a metal case are more dangerous than devices in a plastic case. At home, deaths occur due to the simultaneous contact with a damaged appliance and a water heating battery or water pipe.

Electrical safety measures in the home and outdoors.

Before plugging in the electric plug, make sure that it is from the device you are going to turn on. Also, after pulling the plug from the outlet, check that you are not mistaken. If the wires and cords from neighboring devices are similar, make them different. Wrap with insulating tape or paint. Do not handle the power plug with wet hands..

voltage. If you still have to cross the danger zone near a wire lying on the ground, you must do it by running so that only one foot touches the soil at a time.

When entering the trolley, you should not touch his side with your hand. The trolleybus housing may be energized due to breakdown of insulation. It’s better to jump in and a trolley, rather than enter. Jump, and not go out, so that there is no situation when one foot is on the ground and the other is on the foot of the trolley. Electric trains and trams are not dangerous in this regard, because they are always grounded.

Industrial hazards.

The most dangerous (in relation to electrical injuries) sectors of the economy are agriculture and construction. The reasons for the widespread use of temporary electrical wiring. Dropped to the ground or somehow suspended wires falling into puddles damaged by vehicles. Approximately 30% of electrical injuries in installations with a voltage of 65 Volts and below comes from the fact that as a result of an error or breakdown, they turn out to be 220 or 380 Volts. The surface of the insulating material may become electrically conductive as a result of contamination and / or wetting..

The most common victims are electricians, radio engineers, electric welders, construction workers. Many cases of electrical damage occur in industrial plants that use chemically active substances that destroy insulation, as well as in dusty industrial premises. Dust reduces the insulating properties of structures; a wet-covered insulator becomes a conductor. Wet rooms are dangerous. Breakdown of insulation can occur in hidden wiring at the place where the wire passes through the hole in the wall. Damage can occur from simultaneous contact with a damp surface (wall, floor) and a part of water supply or water heating.

More than half of lesions in lighting installations occur when replacing bulbs. Losses during work are more likely to occur at the beginning of the shift, before the lunch break and at the end of the shift. This can be explained by fatigue, a weakening of attention, a decrease in the body’s resistance. It is dangerous to temporarily lay the cable on the floor, on the ground. Deaths are known due to the touch of live wires to the terminal box covers. Due to the lack of uniformity in the design of current-carrying devices, injuries occur when the usual actions are thoughtlessly performed.

The relative danger of various electrical devices.

Electric motor: 1 (level adopted per unit).
Electric welding machine: 41
Portable power receiver: 72
High Frequency Setting: 118

Electrical safety measures at work.

When working in equipment that is energized, you should keep one hand in your pocket. However, there were fatal electric shock after closure through two points on one palm. Do not work in equipment that can be turned on without warning. In some cases, those who died from electrical injuries during the repair of equipment could be protected with simple, fingerless, cloth gloves..

You should not pull the victim with your bare hands, which is or may be under the influence of current: the rescuer himself can receive an electric shock through the body of this victim. It is forbidden to perform work on communication lines and power lines in wet weather, especially in a thunderstorm. Turning on and off powerful manual circuit breakers is allowed only in insulating gloves and galoshes.

Protection against electric and electromagnetic fields.

Electric and electromagnetic fields are harmful to the body. Under the influence of an alternating field in the human body there is a circulation of electric currents. There is a potential difference between the parts of the body. Upon contact with a grounded metal surface, a discharge of the body occurs, felt like an unexpected injection.

Means of protection against electric and electromagnetic fields.

Permanent Grounded Screens.
Portable grounded screens. Screens are made of metal mesh or solid metal sheet.
Shielding clothing made of fabric with the addition of metal threads, fabric with a conductive coating, etc..

To protect the static electricity and induced voltage, the car body, as well as any other mobile device made of metal, must be grounded. Since wheel tires are usually made of non-conductive rubber, you can use the chain dragging behind the car.

Based on the book Fundamentals of Electrical Safety.
Manoilova V.E..

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