The modern city street is oversaturated with various kinds of electric networks, like sunflower seeds. It is enough to look around to notice the towers of high-voltage power lines walking around the city, tram and trolleybus wires hanging along the streets, wires of lighting lamps that snake along the walls of electric windows, air ducts thrown from the roof to the roof. And how many cables are buried in the ground underfoot, one can only guess. All this can be an occasion to receive electrical injuries..
Electrical safety on the street, prevention of electrical injuries, actions in case of electric shock.
In general, we can say that the higher or deeper the wire is, the more dangerous it is. That’s why they lift him up on high poles or hide in multi-meter trenches. Typically close to a person are networks of 220 volts and less often, usually in production, of 380 volts.
and parking, make fires under the overhead line, break insulators on supports; make wires of wires and other objects on wires; launch kites under the overhead line. Climb onto the roofs of houses and buildings, where electrical wires pass nearby; enter electrical switchboards and other electrical rooms, use faulty electrical appliances, use dubious carryings, etc..
It is extremely dangerous to touch dangling wires hanging or lying on the ground or even approach them. It is possible to get an electrical injury a few meters from the wire due to the step voltage. Earth, being a conductor of electric current, becomes, as it were, a continuation of a dangling wire. Electric current flowing through the soil and gradually disappearing can pose a threat to a person closer than 6 8 meters closer.
It is enough to take a step inside this invisible circle in order to get an electric injury due to the difference in electric potentials under the right and left legs. Moreover, the wider the step, the greater the potential difference, the harder the lesion. By the way, with the help of such artificially created step voltage, many secret objects are protected. I myself observed in the army the remains of animals who inadvertently stepped into a forbidden zone, guarded by invisible and ruthless electricity to living creatures. So do not have a bad habit of wandering around protected objects, shout Stop! Who goes? you may not hear.
I can not say about cases of electrical injuries when people die from contact not with the electric wires themselves, but with random conductive objects coming from them. For example, to wet, hooked on wires ropes. Or to a stream of water flowing through a bare wire. Or to a stream of water that flows onto a wire, for example, flows from a person. Don’t smile, it’s not such a rare death when an accidental passerby who decided to solve a small need somewhere in a secluded place gets that jet onto a wire and dies from electrical injuries.
As an example, I’ll give a case that happened at Kanash station. A teenager crossing a railway line on a pedestrian bridge was jammed with a cassette player. Not wanting to postpone the repair to the house, the boy began to manually rewind the tape directly on the bridge. One end of it jumped out of his hands and touched the contact wire, the voltage of which is 27 thousand volts! As a result of electrical injuries, the boy lost both hands.
Actions in case of electric shock.
In case of electric shock up to 380 Volts, a person due to a convulsive contraction of muscles tightly compresses an object that is under voltage, and cannot independently be released. Very quickly, a person loses consciousness and, continuing to remain energized, dies. From here, first of all, to save the victim, it is necessary to open the electric circuit, of which he became a part. It is unacceptable to try to pull a person away from the current source, this will only lead to the fact that instead of one injured by an electric shock, two will appear, and when the next one approaches, three, and so on to infinity.
The simplest solution is to open the circuit with a switch, knife switch or plug, unscrew the plugs or turn off the circuit breakers on the shield. If this is not possible, you should cut or cut the wire one at a time using wire cutters, scissors or another tool having a handle made of insulating material. In extreme cases, you can chop it with an ax, a shovel, etc. an improvised tool, having previously wrapped the handle with a dry cloth, rubber or other non-conductive material.
If it is impossible to disconnect, you should use a long dry stick, having previously wrapped it with dielectric material, remove the wire from the victim, or push him away from the current source, or pull the victim to yourself, grabbing onto your clothes and not touching open parts of the body. On moist soil and in damp rooms, it is advisable to isolate yourself from the ground by wearing rubber boots, galoshes or spreading under your feet any non-conductive material up to dry clothes removed from you.
Remember, if you hurry, you will not only not help the victim, but you will also suffer. It’s better to spend a few seconds on preparation and guaranteed to save a person than to win a moment and lose it, and possibly your life. If you yourself have come under stress, then you must try to tear yourself away from the adhered wire by any means until you consciously fall from a height of several meters. Life is more important than possible bruises and even fractures. In addition, it can be recommended to break the electric circuit, jump up and discard an energized object at the moment of separation from the ground..
In the same way, you can help an outsider by shouting out loud: Jump! If he has not lost consciousness, he may hear you. With step voltage, you should move around in small steps that do not exceed the length of the foot. Or jumping, tightly clutching both legs together. Usually at a distance of 20-30 meters from the fallen wire, the step voltage is already safe. But … As always, there is a but. It is believed that with a voltage exceeding 1 kV, the listed safety measures are insufficient and the intervention of electricians is required. But you can’t know that there is 1 kV in this wire. So it’s better not to risk it. I mean the life of the victim is not to risk it. And, observing all safety measures, still try to help him.
After you dragged the victim out of the danger zone, you must immediately provide him with first aid, including artificial respiration and indirect heart massage. Not every electric shock, even exceeding 380 volts, is fatal. The life of the victim directly depends on how quickly and skillfully you help him. Why you need to be able to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage. Be sure to be able to. If you do not want to lose your loved ones who stepped on a random wire.
To avoid electric shocks and electrical injuries on the street, do not.
Walking on the ground, holding in your hands the plugged in electrical appliances. It is especially dangerous to walk barefoot on wet soil.
Tie clotheslines to downpipes located under power lines.
Work with radio and television antennas installed on the roof near the power line.
Use garden tools in places where power lines are close to trees.
Remove gliders, kites and other objects caught on wires from the power line.
Carry out construction and other work under power lines.
Enter the switchboard and other electrical premises.
Tackle dangling wires hanging and lying on the ground.
To avoid electrical injuries at home, you can not.
Drive nails into the wall in a place where hidden wiring can be located. Deadly dangerous at this moment is grounded on central heating batteries, water supply.
Drill walls in places of possible wiring.
Paint, whiten, wash walls with live or hidden live wires.
Work with electrical appliances turned on near batteries or water.
Work with electrical appliances, change bulbs while standing on the bathroom.
Work with faulty electrical appliances.
Repair non-powered appliances.
Based on materials from the School of Survival in Accidents and Natural Disasters.