The first navigation cartographic systems immediately interested seafarers and international organizations responsible for the safety of navigation. In connection with the prospects expected from them, an international concept for the construction of navigational cartographic systems for marine navigation was developed in a short time..
Electronic cartographic systems, types and basic functions of navigation cartographic systems.
The advent of navigation cartographic systems has become possible as a result of the integration of modern intelligent technologies in the form of satellite navigation, computer electronics and electronic cartography. These “three whales” formed a solid foundation for the efficient and easy-to-use numerous electronic cartographic systems found in mobile transport facilities.
If at the beginning of its appearance such cartographic systems were mainly used in marine navigation, recently cartographic systems have been intensively introduced into land transport to control and track the movement of vehicles. But the main purpose of their use is still to increase the safety of transportation in transport and reduce the load on the operator, especially in maritime and aviation.
It is in these areas that the urgent need to improve navigation safety is recognized in order to preserve the lives of people, expensive cargo and prevent environmental disasters. The increased traffic on international routes has led to the need for regulation by the appropriate international institutions of the introduction of navigation systems with electronic maps and the development of common standards for them. This issue was particularly acute in the navy.
As a result of many years of work by a number of committees of the International Hydrographic and Maritime Organization (IHO, IMO), a number of standards for a system for displaying electronic maps and navigation information were developed and approved. Such mapping systems are called Electronic Chart Navigation Information Systems (ECDIS / ECDIS Electronic Chart Display and Information System). These systems automate the navigation process, providing the navigator with full electronic information from all connected navigation sensors when working with an electronic map. Combining all the information on one display allows you to assess the situation and make a decision in the shortest possible time. According to the standards, ECDIS has the following requirements:
To eliminate the failure, ECDIS should be backed up, for example, by installing a double set of equipment.
ECDIS should use official format maps issued by state-authorized hydrographic services.
Automatic correction of electronic cards should be provided..
ECDIS must undergo a certification procedure (type approval) and have a certificate from the relevant classification society.
According to the SOLAS International Convention, when using electronic cartographic navigation information systems that satisfy such conditions, you can refuse to work on board a ship with paper charts. The importance of the developed ECDIS concept is that, together with the database of official electronic cards supported by automatic proofreading, it can be considered as the legal equivalent of the adjusted paper card. This means that there is no need to have a collection of paper cards on board, which leads to cost savings..
Also, two practical conclusions for potential users of ECDIS follow from this definition. The first is the possibility for the boatmaster to file a lawsuit against the hydrographic service if the ship is stranded due to the inaccuracy of the official electronic map data. And the second conclusion concerns the claim against the certification authority, which can be brought in case of an accident due to a failure of the certified electronic cartographic navigation information system.
It would seem that after the standards for ECDIS were developed and agreed upon, their wide distribution should begin. But this did not happen for a number of reasons. The main one is the insufficient coverage of official maps of the waters of the oceans, according to some estimates, it makes up 3-7% of the running time for a typical cargo ship. And the second reason was the development of a class of cheaper alternative systems in the form of electronic cartographic systems (EX). How do the latter differ from ECDIS?
The answer is functionally simple with nothing. It is essentially different, namely, that EX-systems use either commercial databases of vector maps or raster maps. In most countries, electronic mapping systems do not require a type approval certificate, and there is no international IMO EX-Operational Standard. Of course, when installing electronic cartographic systems on a ship, laying should still be on a paper map, which requires a collection of paper cards on board.
The main functions of electronic cartographic navigation information systems and electronic cartographic systems.
Providing the navigator with navigation information on the coordinates and speed vector of the vessel against the background of an electronic map in real time.
The display of electronic cards on the display screen, as close as possible to the paper original.
Control the map display with zooming and orientation of the map, pan.
Combining on-screen cartographic and radar information.
Identification and display of navigational hazards with the issuance of data on the direction and distance to them.
Defining and displaying safe courses.
Display of ARPA and AIS targets on a map.
Operational change in the composition of objects displayed on the map.
Getting information about map objects from the database.
Retrieving Port Information from a Database.
Execution of executive and preliminary laying.
Performing automated proofreading of electronic cards.
Route planning and calculation.
Route play and hazard identification.
Determination of distance and bearing to a given point.
Alerts in the form of text messages and sound signals.
Selection of cards from the catalog.
Change the color palette of the displayed map.
ARPA radar automatic laying system. AIS Automatic Identification System (Transponder).
Electronic Cartographic System Manufacturers.
Over 90 companies around the world are engaged in the production of electronic cartographic systems; the price of many of them is $ 10-15 thousand. At the same time, the cost of ECDIS is much higher and reaches $ 60 thousand. Among the most famous foreign manufacturers of navigation equipment, we mention only a few: Furuno, Interphase, JRC, MAXSEA, NAVMAN USA, Raymarine, Simrad / Shipmate, SEIWA, Standard Horizon.
Based on materials from the book All About GPS Navigators.
Naiman V.S., Samoilov A.E., Ilyin N.R., Sheinis A.I..