A bonfire camp is organized for more efficient use of heat from the fire, for this, from the leeward side of the fire, it is necessary to put a reflector canopy and equip a stove bench. Previously, in the snow to the ground trampled area under the future couch. In deep snow, poles that are lined with a thick layer of spruce branches are laid crosswise on top of the snow pre-compacted, stamped with feet or skis.
Emergency bonfire bivouac during survival in extreme conditions, a method of breeding a fire Nodya.
It is advisable that the site under the bonfire bivouac be slightly inclined to the bonfire, then sleeping people will be more open to warmth. The easiest and fastest way is to make a heat-reflecting canopy under the bonfire bivouac by tying a long horizontal pole to the trunks of two trees standing along the edges of the site at a height of 1-1.5 meters. A fabric or plastic film is attached to the pole, the lower horses of which are fixed to the ground with stones or pegs.
In the absence of a large sheet of film or fabric, vertical poles are leaning against the pole every half a meter, on which pieces of existing material are lapped. If there is no fabric or film at all, a simple frame made of vertical and horizontal sticks is built under the bonfire bivouac, on which spruce paws are hung, overlapping each other like tiles. In strong winds, the film or spruce can be pressed with the help of thick poles piled on top. It is advisable to throw a snow curtain only in the lower part, since at the top it quickly melts, and water drops on vacationers.
In the complete absence of material suitable for the manufacture of a canopy under the campfire bivouac, you can fashion it from the snow. Why stick vertical sticks in a snowdrift and heat a 1-1.5-meter snow shaft on them. Having achieved the maximum flame in the fire, you should wait until the snow melts. Reheat the snow and let it melt again. Gradually, the snowy hall will take the form of a kind of visor – a niche. When the surface of the visor freezes, you need to reduce the heat of the fire and equip the stove bench. Of course, a snow screen is less convenient than a fabric screen or from spruce branches, but still it is much warmer with it than just a campfire.
Bonfires under emergency bonfire camp, campfire Nodya.
The so-called taiga bonfires (“two logs”, “cannon”, “nodia”, etc.), which are laid out from thick logs, are most suitable for an emergency bonfire bivouac. Most often, tourists and victims of an accident use the Nodia bonfire. In “Nodya” trunks of dry coniferous trees are used. The littered trunk is cleared of branches, branches, sawn into 2-3-meter logs. The thicker the logs, the less they will be needed to organize an overnight stay. Logs with a diameter of 15-20 cm will require more than a dozen and a half, 25-30 cm – six to seven. If you use logs of larger diameter, you can do three. The thicker trunks are taken for a fire, the less attention and labor will be required from a fire to maintain it.
Thick logs burn, so to speak, in self-regulation mode, while thin logs require constant attention. It is best to lay a bonfire on the ground. At the same time, it is desirable that the bonfire is located slightly above the bed. Then sleeping people will fall not only under reflected from the canopy, but also under direct thermal rays coming from the fire. On deep (more than 1.5-2 meters) snow, it is necessary to make flooring under the campfire bivouac. On long raw poles and logs laid across the fire, scatter raw and rotten logs, lay down and roll fire logs on them already. It is also possible to use several thick one and a half meter crude block blocks as a flooring, in which small recesses are cut down beforehand.
The logs laid on the ground or logs must be brought close to each other and, if they are lying on a slope, secured with pegs driven into the ground or stones placed on the sides, logs. If the logs have a different diameter, it is better that the thinner one is located on the side of the bed, which will provide a wider and directed to the sleeping stream of heat. In the gap between the logs, kindling and small dry firewood are poured along the entire length, and deep logs are cut in the logs themselves to deep dry layers of wood. Campfire making is easier if you use hot coals from a fire on duty.
After the kindling and firewood burn well, a third is rolled on top of the lower logs. It should be the driest and thickest, since it is from him that the heat transfer of the fire most depends. The heat is adjusted by shifting and spreading the logs. The smaller the gaps between the logs, the weaker the fire burns and the more economical fuel consumption, and vice versa. As the logs burn, it should be cleaned of soot by tapping the ax with an ax or turning around its axis with the help of two axes driven into the ends.
Near a small precipice or blockage of stones, you can build a bonfire of 2-3 logs stacked on top of each other. To do this, they must be piled on 3-4 guiding raw poles driven into the ground and fixed by placing stones or logs under the lower log. Fire kindled under the lower log gradually spreads to the upper ones. Such a bonfire, on the one hand, is hotter, on the other hand, less economical, because due to the larger size of the flame it burns out faster than the “node”.
A small group of 2-3 people is usually located on a couch parallel to the bonfire. Large – perpendicular, legs to the fire. In order not to accidentally slide into the fire at night, in parallel with the bonfire, a thick, raw support log should be laid and fixed with stakes or stones. It will protect those lying on the edge from excessive heat and sparks flying out of the fire. During a night’s rest, an even, smoldering heat of the fire should be achieved. By morning, it is better to increase the intensity of the burning of the fire, so that people who get up can dress and put on warm shoes. At night near the fire it is necessary to leave fire on duty.
Based on materials from the School of Survival in Natural Conditions.