An emergency is a situation in a certain territory that has arisen as a result of an accident, natural hazard, catastrophe, natural or other disaster that could result in loss of life, damage to human health or the environment, significant material loss and violation of human conditions.
Emergency, classification of emergencies by signs.
Each emergency has its inherent causes, features and nature of development. Emergencies can be classified according to the following criteria.
According to the degree of surprise: sudden (unpredictable) and expected (predicted).
It is easier to predict the social, political, economic situation, more difficult – natural disasters. Timely forecasting of an emergency and the right actions to avoid significant losses and in some cases to prevent an emergency.
By speed of distribution.
An emergency can be explosive, rapid, rapidly spreading or moderate, smooth. Most often, most military conflicts, industrial accidents, and natural disasters are fast-moving. Environmental situations are developing relatively smoothly.
By scale of distribution: local, local, territorial, regional, cross-border.
Local, local and territorial include emergency situations that do not go beyond the boundaries of one functional unit, production, or settlement. Regional and transboundary emergencies span entire regions, states or several states.
By duration of action: may be of a short-term nature or have a protracted course.
All emergency situations resulting in environmental pollution are protracted.
By nature: intentional (intentional) and unintentional (unintentional).
The first should include the majority of national, social and military conflicts, terrorist acts and others. Natural disasters by nature of their origin are unintentional; most technological accidents and catastrophes also belong to this group..
By source of origin, emergencies are divided into:
– technogenic character;
– natural origin;
– biological and social character.
Types of technological emergencies.
traffic accidents and disasters,
fires and explosions,
accidents with the release of emergency chemical poisonous substances (AHOV) and toxic substances (OV),
accidents and catastrophes with the release of radioactive substances (RS) or potent toxic substances (SDYAV),
sudden collapse of structures, accidents at electric and energy systems (EES) or communal life support systems,
accidents at industrial wastewater treatment plants, hydrodynamic accidents.
Types of emergency situations of natural origin.
hazardous marine hydrological phenomena,
Types of biological and social emergencies.
various acts of violence.
land lithosphere (soil, bowels, landscape);
composition and properties of the atmosphere (air);
state of the hydrosphere (aquatic environment);
state of the biosphere;
infectious diseases of people, animals and plants.
For practical purposes and establishing a unified approach to assessing emergencies of a natural and technogenic nature, determining the boundaries of emergency zones and responding adequately to them, the following classification has been introduced:
– depending on the number of people affected in these emergencies;
– people whose living conditions are violated;
– the amount of material damage, as well as the border of the zone of distribution of the damaging factors of the emergency.
It is defined as a dangerous natural phenomenon, an accident or an industrial accident, an infectious disease of people, animals and plants, as well as the use of modern means of destruction, as a result of which an emergency can occur.
The source of emergency.
It is defined as a component of a dangerous phenomenon or process caused by an emergency source and characterized by physical, chemical and biological actions or phenomena that are determined by the relevant parameters.
It is defined as the territory or water area in which an emergency occurred as a result of the source of the emergency or the spread of its consequences from other areas..
This is the territory within which dangerous chemical substances or biological (bacteriological) agents, radioactive substances in quantities that are dangerous to people, animals and plants and the environment are common.
A limited territory within which, as a result of the impact of modern means of destruction, mass deaths or injuries of people, farm animals and plants occurred, buildings and structures, as well as environmental elements, were destroyed and damaged..
Emergency Damage Assessment.
It is carried out according to 5 main parameters:
– direct losses due to an emergency;
– the costs of emergency rescue and other urgent work;
– the volume of evacuation measures and the costs of their implementation;
– costs of emergency response;
– indirect losses.
About the book Materials Extreme situations.
I. G. Malkin.