Emergency conditions, acute diseases, exacerbations of chronic pathologies, trauma, poisoning and other conditions that threaten a person’s life.

Emergency conditions mean various acute diseases, exacerbations of chronic pathologies, injuries, poisoning and other conditions that threaten a person’s life. Emergency conditions require urgent medical care to alleviate the condition of the patient or save his life. 

Emergency conditions, acute diseases, exacerbations of chronic pathologies, injuries, poisoning and other conditions that threaten a person’s life.

Emergency conditions are distinguished by the rate of development of the pathological process in the body. For example, anaphylactic shock develops instantly (several minutes), and a ketoacidotic coma in diabetes mellitus develops slowly (several hours or days). In any case, medical assistance to the injured or sick person should be provided as soon as possible, without waiting for the severity of the condition to increase..

substances act slowly and after a while the patient is able to fall into a coma or get severe complications. Lack of timely care for hypertensive crisis can lead to stroke or encephalopathy. In these cases, the treatment is complicated, and the prognosis for the patient worsens significantly..

Symptoms of emergency.

Emergency conditions are often manifested by symptoms that cannot be ignored. These include: pain, vomiting and diarrhea, especially repeated, dizziness and headache, short-term loss of consciousness, speech disorders, high fever; a significant decrease in the amount of urine released, external bleeding and signs of bleeding from internal organs. All these symptoms are most common in emergencies. Recently, atypical, latent and erased forms of various diseases are increasingly being identified. Most emergency conditions preserve the classic clinical picture – an attack of bronchial asthma, a seizure, a hypertensive crisis in their manifestations have remained unchanged for hundreds of years, and a non-specialist can recognize them.

Even in the absence of information about the injury, an attack of a chronic disease, the use of toxic substances, it is possible to identify an emergency condition in the appearance of the patient or victim. It is necessary to pay attention to his posture, voice, facial expression, presence or absence of consciousness, color and moisture of the skin. Already on these grounds it is not difficult to understand a lot. Next, you should check the presence of a pulse, its characteristics and frequency, determine the level of blood pressure, rhythm and respiratory rate, body temperature. Based on these data, it can be concluded that emergency assistance and resuscitation are necessary..

Diagnosis and clarification of the causes of emergency.

The diagnosis of the causes of the emergency will help in the diagnosis. Why not only pay attention to the victim, but also evaluate the environment, ask witnesses or relatives. Distribution and examination is especially important if a young child needs emergency care. If necessary, inspect things of the injured or sick.

Patients with hemophilia and diabetes often carry documents or notes with a diagnosis. Among personal belongings, you can find medicines that the patient often takes (inhalers, validol, nitroglycerin, etc.). In some situations, helping the patient take the usual medicine at hand can save his life. In many cases, it is immediately difficult for a specialist to find out the cause of the emergency.

For example, a sharp decrease in blood pressure may be associated with internal bleeding, impaired cardiac activity, poisoning with antihypertensive drugs. Then, having assessed the general situation, it is possible to provide the patient with minimal assistance, to monitor, call an ambulance team.

Medical assistance in this case begins in a standard way, aimed at eliminating the leading symptoms or mechanisms of the development of an emergency, and then the treatment is adjusted as the reasons are clarified and the diagnosis is clarified. When diagnosing an emergency, it is necessary to take into account that some symptoms are found in many diseases, poisoning, pathological conditions.

The “universal” symptoms are nausea and vomiting, dizziness, vaginal pain, uncertain in nature and location, and others. In these cases, it is necessary to take into account the totality of all the symptoms and data about the victim, provide first aid and call health workers. The doctor, upon examination of the injured or sick person, is able to detect less noticeable, but more important for diagnosis symptoms of an emergency condition, to provide qualified medical assistance.

Emergency First Aid.

Do not underestimate the condition of the patient, therefore, when providing emergency care, it is necessary to assume the further development of pathology, the possibility of deterioration. For example, with abdominal pain in a child, it is necessary first of all to think about the acute inflammatory process in the abdominal cavity and examine the internal organs. It might be enough to make a cleansing enema, give antispasmodics, but there is a great risk of causing serious consequences if appendicitis or ulcerative colitis is the real cause of the pain.

In case of poisoning, it is necessary to save the remains of the poisonous substance, the consumed drugs, as well as vomit and feces before the arrival of medical workers. All this will help the doctor make a preliminary diagnosis. It is advisable to record the time of administration or ingestion of drugs during emergency care, as well as the number of times vomiting, whether the intestines were empty. In some cases, the volume of urine is important..

Based on the book “Quick help in emergency situations”.
Kashin S.P..

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