Extreme or stressful situations can sometimes significantly accelerate delivery. Symptoms of this are pain in the lower back, periodic contractions in the lower abdomen, mucous discharge with blood.
Emergency birth in the field, emergency or extreme situation, stage of childbirth, birth of a fetus, resuscitation of a newborn, actions after childbirth.
If there is no way to deliver a woman in childbirth to the nearest medical facility or call for help on the spot, then get ready to take birth on your own. At the very first sign of an impending birth, get ready immediately. Since the availability of necessary tools and clean dressing material in the field away from civilization can be very limited, use all possible suitable tools and items.
, and if there is no closed packaging of a sterile bandage, then there are also three 20-centimeter pieces of rope, cord, etc. Prepare any disinfectant: iodine, alcohol, cologne, vodka, a weak (pale pink) potassium permanganate solution, etc. As much as possible clean hot water and a plastic bottle or other container filled with cold water, snow or ice.
If there are no clean dressings or very few, then use fabric cuts, clothing items, etc. In general, all that can replace the missing material. To suck out mucus from the nose and mouth of a newborn, ideally you need a small rubber bulb, but if it is not available, then any clean tube of small diameter will do. For example, a body from a ballpoint pen. It must also be sterilized. If there is absolutely nothing like this, then you will have to clean the baby’s airways with your mouth, sucking the mucus into you.
Wash and disinfect hands thoroughly on mothers and assistants. If there is such a possibility, then completely cover the nails and nail phalanges with iodine. If there is no soap, then use a diluted 1:10 alkali with water. If you have sterile rubber gloves, be sure to wear them, but they do not save you from washing your hands. Prepare a clean, comfortable, and most protected place against possible rainfall for the woman in labor. In the cold season, this can be a place under a canopy next to a hot bonfire or in a well-warmed tent of sufficient volume.
Undress the woman completely or if it is cold, then free from clothes only below the waist. Cover it with plastic wrap, oilcloth, clean cloth, or part of your clothing. If there is time and opportunity, then shave off the hairline and wash the perineum with clean, warm water, and then disinfect without touching the mucosa. Cover the woman in labor with a blanket, sleeping bag, or warm clothing. You yourself are always nearby. To reduce prenatal pain, you can massage the lower back. And if it brings relief to wipe your face with something moist and cool. You can not drink during childbirth, just rinse your mouth.
First stage of labor.
Childbirth begins with the first stage, when the uterus begins to contract at intervals of 10-20 minutes. The number of mucous secretions with blood is increasing, the interval between cramping pains, lasting up to a minute, is getting shorter. This stage can last several hours. At the end of the first stage of labor, the fetal bladder opens and amniotic fluid flows.
The second stage of childbirth.
When the water has withdrawn from the woman in labor, and the contractions have become regular, help her lie on her side or sit reclining, half-sitting, leaning her back against some kind of support. A canopy wall, a tree, a backpack, a bundle of blankets, etc. During contractions, a woman in labor should pull her knees up and grab them with her hands, bending her head to them and holding her breath. Between contractions should rest.
Birth of a fetus.
A woman in labor should not hold her breath and push during this period. You should breathe through the mouth, short breaths. This will make it easier for the fetus to slow out evenly. If defecation occurs (bowel cleansing), wipe from front to back. The fetal head appears first (usually, but not always). Until the baby is born completely, support her with your palms. When the shoulders appear, support the body under the armpits and lift the parturient woman toward the abdomen. Be careful and prepared for the baby to be very slippery.
If the child’s face is in the fetal bladder, it looks like a thin film, it must be carefully and gently cut or torn, otherwise the child may suffocate and then remove the mucus from the nose and mouth using a rubber bulb or, in the absence of such, simply suck the mucus through a suitable the size of a blunt tube. If there is nothing at all, then gently clean the baby’s mouth with your finger, wrapped in a sterile bandage or a clean cloth. Look if the umbilical cord is wrapped around the neck, if so, then carefully, but quickly remove it over the child’s head like a scarf, without waiting for the birth of the whole body.
If the baby has not yet begun to breathe, place it on its palm with its belly down or on an inclined clean surface with its side to the side. So that the head is located just below the body. Lightly massage his back and chest with a finger, pat it lightly on the back and heels until spontaneous breathing occurs. The baby will scream and his skin will turn pink.
After this, the child needs to be wiped, wrapped in a clean cloth, and without putting on the umbilical cord, put next to the mother. A newborn can not maintain the temperature of his body, so he must be warmed by wrapping or holding in his arms and clutching to himself. If the baby does not go head first or the delivery continues for more than three minutes after the shoulders appear, you can very gently pull the baby out.
Resuscitation of a newborn after childbirth.
If the baby does not cry and does not show signs of breathing within two minutes after giving birth, then laying it on your back, on a hard surface, very carefully begin artificial respiration by mouth-to-mouth method. Tilt his head back so that the tongue does not block the larynx, grip your child’s mouth and nose at the same time, and gently blow air at a frequency of 35 to 40 breaths per minute, but not the entire volume contained in your lungs, but only the one that fits approximately in the cavity mouth.
Check the pulse of a newborn baby, if it is absent, then it is necessary to start doing an indoor heart massage. For two breaths, fifteen clicks on the middle third of the sternum with the index finger of the hand. If there is an assistant, then you are doing artificial respiration, and he has an indirect heart massage, with one breath five taps on the sternum.
Actions after emergency delivery in the field or in extreme conditions.
Now you should wait until the placenta comes out, usually about 10 minutes after the birth of the baby. Do not pull on the umbilical cord, wait until the attempts again begin, during which bloody discharge appears from the birth canal and the umbilical cord becomes longer. This indicates placental abruption from the walls of the uterus. After the placenta comes out or after the umbilical cord stops pulsating and changes color from blue to white, which means that all the blood has flowed into the baby’s body, it must be cut.
To do this, tightly bandage the umbilical cord with sterilized material (bandage, cord, etc.), first 15 centimeters from the baby’s navel, and then the second section 5 centimeters further. Make sure that the first bandage is absolutely reliable. Otherwise, the child may lose blood. With sterile scissors or a knife, cut the umbilical cord between the two dressings. Treat the trimmed end connecting with the child with any available disinfectant and apply a sterile dressing. Leave everything alone for 10 minutes and make sure that the bleeding has stopped, then bandage the umbilical cord again 10 centimeters from the baby’s navel.
After the placenta has come out, gently wash the woman in labor, put clean tissue on the perineum, and on the lower abdomen, to prevent uterine bleeding, a plastic bottle or other container with cold water. Give the woman a hot drink and let her rest. At the first opportunity, even if the birth took place without complications, the woman and the child must be taken to the nearest medical institution so that they can be examined by specialists. If the birth was emergency and in abnormal conditions, then the complications after them are unpredictable and can sometimes lead to the death of the mother and child.
Based on the book “A comprehensive guide to survival in extreme situations, in the wild, on land and at sea”.