It is known that a person for a sufficiently long time can do without food, using the body’s reserves and maintaining high physical and mental activity. This ability of an organism to do without energy material from outside has long attracted the attention of physiologists..
Emergency diets and food reserves in the NAZ, recommendations to people who find themselves in a deserted area with a small supply of food.
As far back as the 80s of the last century, a classical experiment was set up, the participants of which, Italian volunteer-hunger strippers Suzzi and Marletti, did not eat any food for 30 35 days and at the same time showed high ability to physical and mental activity.
includes beef stew (4 cans of 100 g each), Trekking biscuits (90 g), sugar (135 g), chocolate (300 g), salt (60 g). Such a diet contains 127 g of protein, 160 g of fat and 348 g of carbohydrates. In the early 60s, so-called freeze-dried or lyophilized products of meat, vegetables, cottage cheese, etc., from which water was extracted, but not by simple drying at high temperature, with the help of which dried fruits, crisp potatoes began to be used to complete emergency rations, were used and soup bags.
With freeze-drying, the products are pre-frozen, and then placed in a vacuum apparatus, and already there, without exposure to heat, ice turns into steam. This method not only reduces the weight of the products by 80% from the original due to the removal of water, but also allows you to save their structural lattice, leaving them tasty and nutritious. This method has another advantage. Since water is a favorable environment for the development of microorganisms, its almost complete removal allows increasing the shelf life of lyophilized products under the most ordinary conditions (without a refrigerator) up to several years.
It was from these products that emergency food supplies were made for the NAZs of the first spacecraft. Using lyophilized meat, milk, cottage cheese, cheese, experts made several highly nutritious food mixtures. Mix No. 1 included cheese, cottage cheese and milk in a ratio of 1: 1: 1 with a total weight of 150 g. Mix No. 2 consisted of cottage cheese, cream and sugar in a ratio of 5: 5: 1 with a total weight of 150 g. The third mixture, weighing 220 g , was made from cream, cashew nuts, milk and sugar (5: 5: 11: 1). 300 g of mixture No. 4 consisted of beef, white crackers and cream (6: 4: 6). In addition, 300 g of refractory chocolate, 300 g of sugar and 18 g of dragee, each of which contained 1650 IE of vitamin A, one milligram of vitamins B1 and B2, 25 mg of vitamin C were included in the diet..
The mixtures pressed into tablets were packed in viscotene film and divided into three daily dachas. Each of the stupid people, in turn, consisted of four servings of the pill-mixtures: breakfast, lunch, lunch and dinner. The diet contained 241 g of protein, 338 g of fat and 685 g of carbohydrates. And although its total weight was small only 1450 g, calorie content reached 6950 kcal, while, for example, the energy value of the emergency food ration NAZ-7, composed of ordinary canned foods, with a weight of 925 g does not exceed 3500 kcal.
Since even with short-term sub-caloric nutrition, the body begins to actively expend its internal tissue reserves, for their better utilization it is recommended to include carbohydrates and, in particular, sugar, 1 g of which prevents the formation of acetone (the product of incomplete breakdown of fats) from 4 g of fat for their better utilization. Therefore, if an energy deficit of 2500 kcal requires approximately 280 g of fat from the depot, the amount of carbohydrates in the diet should be at least 70 g. In order to compensate for energy expenditures arising from moderate physical work, the body needs to receive about 3 thousand kcal per day.
At the same time, studies have shown that a person can manage for two or more weeks without prejudice to health with a diet whose energy value is only 500 kcal. Although he will experience, especially in the early days, a strong feeling of hunger. However, in the future it will decrease significantly. True, a person eating a low-calorie diet will be somewhat faster than usual, tired during physical work. To experience light dizziness and shortness of breath during physical exertion, however, its physical and mental performance will remain for a long time at a fairly high level.
What can be recommended to people who find themselves in a deserted area with a small supply of food?
First of all, it is necessary to take into account all available stocks of products and distribute them into small stocks, with a calorific value of about 500 kcal. It is not difficult to calculate, knowing that 1 g of fat gives 9.1 kcal, 1 g of protein 4.0, 1 g of carbohydrates 4.0 kcal. At the same time, if possible, it is necessary to use as much as possible everything that the surrounding nature gives. Meat of animals, fish, reptiles (snakes, lizards), large insects (locusts, etc.), wild edible plants. Food and emergency supplies are best left on a rainy day. Often a person, even experiencing severe hunger, refuses food because of its unusualness. Unpleasant appearance or existing prejudices. Meanwhile, for some peoples, such food is traditional. For example, residents of many countries of Asia and Africa willingly use locusts for food..
In Burma, fried and baked cricket grasshoppers are considered a great treat. Danish polar explorer Knud Rasmussen talks about a very peculiar dish of Eskimos. After numerous meat dishes at the feast on the occasion of a successful hunt, a dessert was served, which.
consisted of greasy, raw deer gadfly larvae from the skins of freshly killed deer. The larvae were teeming on a large meat tray, like giant worms, and on the teeth they slightly cracked.
Locusts and grasshoppers, cicadas and their larvae, large non-hairy caterpillars, white larvae of beetles living in soil and wood, winged specimens of anthermites ants, dragonfly larvae, etc..
Silkworm and pupa food mass, containing 23.1% carbohydrates, 14.2% protein and 1.25% fat, has a calorie content of 206 kcal. Snails contain up to 12.2% protein, 0.66% fat. Their calorific value is 50.9 kcal. 100 g of fried termites will provide the body with 561 kcal. Rich in protein, fats and minerals, locusts, water beetles, smooth-skinned caterpillars. You can eat them not only fried and baked, but also raw. They eat mainly the abdomen and chest, having previously removed the hard chitinous parts (wings, legs, head).
It is not recommended to use hairy caterpillars, adult butterflies, beetles, as well as terrestrial mollusks devoid of shells. Eat 2 times a day in the morning and in the evening. Drinking plenty of water if there is no shortage of it. Water should be drunk hot, infused on the leaves of currant, raspberry, etc. Broth is prepared from canned meat, while biscuits and crackers are soaked.
Based on materials from the book Man in extreme environmental conditions.