Knowing the basics of survival in nature is a must for every person. Survival should be understood as active, expedient actions aimed at preserving life, health, and working capacity in an autonomous existence..
Emergency situations in nature, autonomous existence, preventive measures, necessary skills and abilities of a person, NAZ equipment.
These active expedient actions are:
In overcoming psychological stress.
A manifestation of ingenuity and resourcefulness.
The effective use of equipment and improvised means to protect against the adverse effects of environmental factors and to meet the body’s needs for food and water.
The capabilities of the human body, like all living things, are limited and are within very narrow limits.
Where is the threshold beyond which changes in the functions of organs and systems become irreversible?
What time limit can people have in extreme conditions??
How best to protect a person from the adverse effects of numerous and diverse environmental factors?
Experience shows that people are able to endure the most severe environmental conditions for a long time. However, a person who is not accustomed to these conditions, who has fallen into them for the first time, is much less adapted to life in the wild than its permanent inhabitants. Therefore, the more severe the environmental conditions, the shorter the periods of autonomous existence. The more stringent must be the rules of conduct. The higher the price that each error is paid.
Of great importance for human vitality are the natural environment, its physical and geographical conditions. Actively acting on the human body, it increases or decreases the terms of autonomous existence, contributes to or hinders the success of survival.
The Arctic and the tropics, mountains and deserts, taiga and the ocean – each of these natural zones is characterized by its own characteristics of climate, relief, flora and fauna. They determine the specifics of human life:
Methods of obtaining water and food.
Features of the construction of shelters.
The nature of diseases and their prevention.
The ability to move around the area.
The favorable outcome of autonomous existence largely depends on the psychophysiological qualities of a person:
The basis of success in the fight against the forces of nature is the human ability to survive. But this requires certain theoretical and practical knowledge. The basis of man’s survival in nature is his conviction that he can and must save his health and life in the most severe conditions. That he will be able to take advantage of all that the environment provides.
Forced autonomous human survival in nature can occur in the following cases:
Deprivation of a vehicle.
Losses of a person who knows the terrain.
The reasons for these cases may be:
Natural disasters, inclement weather.
Transport emergency (shipwreck, plane crash).
Inability to navigate the terrain.
In any case, a person must know the survival factors in the wild.
Human Survival Factors in the Wild.
Survival factors are objective and subjective factors that determine the outcome of an autonomous existence. Practice has shown that out of the total number of people who find themselves in an extreme situation, up to 75% experience a feeling of depression, up to 25% – a neurotic reaction. Self-control not save more than 10%.
Gradually, over time, people either adapt or their condition worsens. Which reactions of a person who finds himself in extreme conditions, negative or positive, will prevail depends on the following factors.
That is, the absence or presence of chronic diseases, allergic reactions, injuries, injuries, bleeding. The age and gender of a person are important, since the most difficult autonomous survival in nature is carried by elderly people and preschool children, as well as pregnant women.
The psychological state of a person.
Favorable psychological factors include the ability to make decisions independently, independence and stress tolerance, a sense of humor and the ability to improvise. The ability to cope with pain, loneliness, apathy and a feeling of powerlessness, to overcome hunger, cold and thirst, and also to cope with other survival stressors is important.
Learning to act in autonomous conditions of survival in nature is a fundamental factor in survival. Much depends on the degree of training. Great luck for a group that fell into autonomous conditions are crew members, professional military personnel, doctors, and rescuers. The chances of survival in such a group are significantly increased. However, this situation may create certain problems..
The most trained members of the group immediately become formal leaders, but depending on the specifics of their profession, they are trained to act with the necessary equipment in their hands, to work in a team of the same professionals as themselves. In emergency situations, equipment and special equipment usually do not exist, a professional may be alone.
The life of dozens of people in confusion and not ready to act in extreme situations depends on the decisions made by him. In such conditions, the specialist should not only be a lifeguard, a doctor, but also the best specialist in this field. Have experience in such situations, have management skills in a crisis.
We list the main skills that a person should have in a situation of autonomous survival in nature:
Ability to calculate the required minimum amount of food and water.
Mastery of the methods of extraction and purification of drinking water in nature.
Ability to navigate the terrain with and without a map, compass, GPS – navigators, other devices.
First Aid Skills.
Skills of hunting wild animals, fishing, tracking prey.
The ability to make a fire with the help of improvised means.
Knowledge of the technology of building temporary shelters.
The ability to signal your whereabouts with the help of radio stations, tables, visual and gesture code signals.
Under the means of survival is understood as a minimum of items for survival, ensuring a comfortable stay in the wild in any weather conditions. This is a wearable emergency stock (NAZ) with essentials.
Complete set of minimum NAZ (option).
Matches with a sulfur head pre-dipped in wax – 3 pcs..
Cherkash (sulfur strip applied on the side of a matchbox), in half – 1 pc..
Sewing needle – 1 pc..
Fishing hook – 2 pcs..
Fishing line and kapron thread – 5 meters each.
Potassium permanganate, tablets of activated carbon – 3 konvalyut.
Painkiller tablets – 1 convulute.
The NAZ case is in a plastic bag with molten wax filled edges, which are tied with an elastic band.
Application of NAZ items.
Matches and Cherkash – means of lighting a fire.
Sewing needle with kapron thread – for repairing clothes, shelters, bags, backpacks, removing splinters and removing ticks.
Fishing hook and fishing line – fishing gear.
Activated carbon tablets and potassium permanganate for the prevention of food poisoning and water disinfection.
Wearable emergency stock in the maximum configuration (option).
First-aid kit (recommended equipment “minimum”):
1. Analgin, acetylsalicylic acid, nitroglycerin, validol, activated carbon, corvalol, sodium sulfacyl, ammonia solution.
2. Hypothermal package, tourniquet, sterile, non-sterile and elastic bandages, bactericidal adhesive plaster, hemostatic wipes, miramistin, adhesive plaster, cotton.
Dehydrated Dry Food and Vitamins.
Gas and gas lighters, waterproof matches.
Strong long rope or paracord.
The ax is small.
Tent or raincoat.
Raincoat, waterproof suit, socks, hat, gloves, high boots (preferably rubber).
Candles, dry fuel.
Fishing rods and fishing line.
Based on the book Methods of Autonomous Human Survival in Nature.
Edited by L. A. Mikhailov.