In any expedition, sea or land, in any campaign or flight, an emergency may arise, as a result of which their participants will lose all equipment, supplies of water, food or a significant part of them. However, the situation of people will not be so dramatic if they are prudent and prepare emergency supplies ahead of time..
Emergency stock of communications in emergency kits for travel and expeditions, their use in an accident or disaster.
The list of items in the emergency kit and their quantity depend on many conditions. The number of participants in the work, its duration, remoteness and, undoubtedly, from the physical and geographical features of the area of the campaign, flight or swimming.
and astronautics. There are many types of NAZ, different in their design, volume, composition of equipment and food products.
However, the contents of each of them can be divided into seven separate groups.
Radio communications: short-wave or ultra-short-wave portable emergency radio stations, radio beacons.
Means of visual signaling: signal cartridges of night and day action, rockets, mortars with a firing device, signal mirror, flashing light, coloring powder.
Emergency food supply: canned or lyophilized foods.
Emergency supply of water: containers for its storage and transportation, production facilities (solar capacitors), desalination (solar destilators, chemical desalination plants) and decontamination (bactericidal preparations).
Camp property: a machete knife, a hunting knife, a compass, optical filters, fire-fighting means (water-resistant matches, a lighter, etc.), dry fuel, a stearin candle, a wire saw, a set of fishing accessories, a medical aluminized cloak, an electric lamp, a mosquito net, foil.
Rescue boats: inflatable rescue boats and rafts.
First-aid kit: hemostatic tourniquet, dressings, iodine, antibiotics, anti-shock drugs, repellent against flying bloodsucking, etc..
In addition to the emergency reserve compiled in accordance with all the rules of science, every traveler can acquire, so to speak, a personal mini-stacking. It is easy to make from a fountain pen that has served its century. If you remove all the filling-pipette, piston, etc. that has become unnecessary from the pen’s body, you can fill the empty cavity with objects that are extremely necessary for a person who finds himself in an autonomous existence. It can be 2 3 sewing needles and one shoe, with a stern thread pulled in the ear, a pair of safety pins, half a dozen small (No. 1 3) fishing hooks, 5 8 m thin veins, half razor blade halves, several matches broken in half to save money places.
To protect against moisture, match heads are dipped two to three times in molten stearin until they are covered with a thin waterproof film. For a greater guarantee, the matches are then wrapped in polyethylene and the bag is brewed at the ends with a heated knife. Twisted and lightly burnt pieces of cotton wool will serve as a tinder, which is stored in the cap. Now it remains to put the cap on the case and the mini-laying is ready. A good complement to it will be a lighter stick. From an ordinary pencil, carefully, so that the wooden shell does not crack, squeeze the stylus and instead insert several flints for the lighter one after the other. Now it’s enough to strike with a stick on any rough hard surface – a stone, metal, to cut a sheaf of sparks, from which the brought up tinder will flash ahead of time.
Emergency stock of communications in the emergency kit, their application.
Radio communications are an essential element of emergency stock. It is obvious that their effectiveness largely determines how quickly distressed people will be detected and how timely assistance will come. May 23, 1928, leaving the coast of Svalbard, took off, heading north, the airship Italy. The expedition, led by Umberto Nobile, was to carry out an extensive Arctic exploration program. But on May 26, radio communications with the airship suddenly ceased. Day after day passed, and there were no reports from the expedition. It became clear that the airship crashed.
And on June 3, 1928, at 19:30, the radio amateur Schmidt from the distant northern village of Ascension-Vokhma received a radiogram: Itali … Nobile … Fran Uosef … SOS, SOS, SOS terri teno EhH. Dozens of expeditions from six countries were equipped to search for the crew of Italy. 18 ships and 21 aircraft. An active participant in the rescue operations was the Soviet Union. By decision of the Soviet government, the powerful icebreaker Krasin, the icebreaking ships Sedov and Malygin were sent to the North. The Soviet expedition saved all the people left after the catastrophe of the airship. Nobile drove Swedish pilot Lundborg from ice camp.
So, if the Italians did not have an emergency radio transmitter at their disposal, they probably would have suffered the tragic fate of many polar explorers of the past, who had disappeared forever among the polar silence. Nowadays, not a single ship, not a single plane, not a single large expedition sets off without an emergency radio transmitter. There are many types of emergency radio stations, different in their design features, dimensions, range, etc. They provide two-way radio communications at a distance of hundreds of kilometers. For example, in the USA, emergency radio stations AN / PRC-90 manufactured by Tadiran are widely used, which provide two-way communication with a search aircraft flying at an altitude of 3000 meters at a distance of 114 km.
Using a walkie-talkie from the West German company Becker Flugfunkwerk MR-506, a distressed pilot can establish communication at a distance of 160 km. The portable radio station R-855 UM used in domestic NAZs is one of the most successful models. Compact, lightweight, easy to use, it is a reliable helper in distress. To establish communication with the search aircraft (helicopter), the NAZ is unpacked and the radio station is removed from it, docked with a power cable and deployed to the full length of the antenna, the buttons on the panel are unlocked. The distress signal is transmitted three times, following the sequence exactly: SOS- three times, combination DE- once, their callsigns twice, latitude and longitude twice, the word reception- once.
After each transmission, the radio station is put into receive mode. On the first day after the accident, you must periodically repeat the SOS signal for 10-12 minutes at the beginning of each hour, then leave the station turned on for reception. In the days following transmission and three-minute reception, it is recommended that you turn off the radio to save power. But as soon as the sound of an aircraft engine is heard or an airplane or helicopter appears in the sky, the station must be turned on as soon as possible. Distress messages are alternated with a one and a half to two minute signal for the drive. If you need long-term operation of the station in one mode, by pressing the corresponding button, hold it with the lock.
With emergency short-wave group radio stations, they work a little differently. Having deployed the station, three times in succession transmit a distress message in telephone and telegraph modes. After each transfer, they switch to reception for three minutes. On the first day after an emergency at the beginning of each hour 10 12 minutes, an SOS signal is automatically transmitted. The rest of the time the station remains on reception. At the beginning of the next day, a distress message is transmitted three times alternately in telephone and telegraph modes with a transition after each transmission for reception within three minutes.
At the beginning of each hour, automatic transmission of SOS signals is turned on for five minutes, and then after a five-minute reception, the station is turned off. Various radio batteries are used to power the radio stations: mercury-cadmium, silver-cadmium, silver-zinc, etc. At an air temperature of +20 degrees, the batteries provide the station with energy for 10 to 20 hours of continuous operation or 30 to 60 hours in two-way communication mode. In the cold season, the battery capacity decreases, and sometimes very significantly. That’s why they are recommended to be kept under clothes, in a sleeping bag, etc..
To ensure two-way radio communication, it is very important to choose the right place for the transmitter. It is undesirable to be located near steep mountain slopes, embankments, stone or reinforced concrete structures, high voltage lines. It is best to transmit from the top of the hill, the ridge of the mountain, the top of a tall tree. To facilitate the search for those in distress, an emergency radio beacon is included in the NAZ package, an automatic device that continuously transmits tone-modulated signals to the air. After switching on, the lighthouse can operate for twenty or more hours.
When it enters water, it is kept afloat by an inflatable spherical shell. If necessary, the beacon can be unmounted, the radio station removed from the shell and used for two-way radio communication with search aircraft. The role of emergency radio facilities in detecting and providing assistance to those in distress is especially growing in connection with the implementation of the international plan for the use of satellite systems to determine the coordinates of the scene of an accident. One such project of the search homing system, GRAN (Global Rescue Alert), developed in the USA, provided for continuous monitoring of alarms on the air using artificial Earth satellites (AES), LES-3, ATS-3, Nimbus.
The Canadian Communications Research Center intended to use the OSCAR-6 low polar orbit satellite for this purpose. However, all these plans were only realized after the development of the international project COSPAS-SARSAT, in which designers and scientists of the USSR, USA, Canada and France took part. The basis of the space search and rescue system was composed of several Soviet and American satellites launched into polar orbits with an altitude of 800 1000 km. All ships and aircraft will have a special emergency beacon. At the time of the accident, the emergency buoy will automatically turn on and will send distress signals every 50 seconds.
A satellite currently flying in this zone will receive a signal and transmit it to Earth at one of the nearest information receiving points (PPI). It was planned to build nine such collection points-stations: three in the Soviet Union (in Arkhangelsk, Vladivostok and Moscow), three in the USA (in Alaska, in the states of California and Illinois), one in Canada (Ottawa), one in France (Toulouse) and one in Norway. The data obtained from the satellite, after processing, will make it possible to establish the coordinates of the accident site with an accuracy of two to four kilometers. They will then be transferred to the national centers of the system to determine the type of vehicle in trouble and its nationality. The latter is unmistakably recognized by code.
For example, the ships and aircraft of the Soviet Union were assigned the code 221, American 111, Canadian 121, French 211. All information received, the Center will immediately notify the host country of the aircraft or ship and the management of the search and rescue service responsible for providing assistance in this area . On June 30, 1982, the Cosmos-1383 artificial satellite was launched in the Soviet Union. With his flight, the development of a system for determining the location of a ship or aircraft in distress began. And already at the first stage of testing, the system began to work. Over the first three months of operation, using the COSPAS-SARSAT system, the coordinates of the places where three aircraft crashes and two sea disasters occurred were determined. As a result of the quick assistance, 12 people were saved..
Based on materials from the book Man in extreme environmental conditions.