Epistaxis, first aid for nosebleeds.

Epistaxis, which stops quickly and is accompanied by a loss of small volume of blood, is not dangerous. Prolonged and massive nosebleeds pose a threat to life. More often, bleeding occurs from one half of the nose, may stop spontaneously. Most often, bleeding occurs when the vessels of the anterior lower part of the nasal septum are damaged. 

Epistaxis, first aid for nosebleeds.

More often, nosebleeds are associated with head injuries, surgical operations, as well as diseases accompanied by blood clotting disorders. In addition, their cause can be atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, liver and kidney diseases, anemia.

Sometimes nosebleeds occur with infectious diseases and heart defects. Staying indoors with dry air causes nosebleeds.

Symptoms of nosebleeds.

Sometimes nosebleeds occur unexpectedly. Slight nosebleeds can be detected by blowing. If a relatively large vessel is damaged, blood flows from the nasal passages in a trickle. With extensive damage to the mucous membrane or large vessels, blood flows from the nose in large volumes. When the patient or victim is horizontal, the head is thrown back in an upright position, blood may drain down the back of the throat into the esophagus and the volume of blood loss remains unknown.

With profuse and prolonged nosebleeds, symptoms of general blood loss appear. These include pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, dizziness, decreased blood pressure, increased heart rate. Leaking large amounts of blood into the stomach can lead to vomiting, and getting into the lower respiratory tract – to cough and suffocation.

First aid for nosebleeds.

With nosebleeds, you can not throw back your head, blow your nose and insert a dry cotton swab into the nasal passages. Blowing out prevents the stopping of bleeding, provokes new bleeding. When removing the tampon from the nose after stopping the bleeding, the mucosa is again damaged. Children often react to nosebleeds with a fright. Therefore, they must first be reassured. It is recommended to tilt your head slightly forward and substitute a container for draining blood. To stop a small bleeding, you can press the wing of the nose to the nasal septum with your finger for several minutes (5-10).

At this time, you should calmly breathe through your mouth and not strain. Apply a towel dampened with cold water or an ice bubble to the bridge of the nose or the back of the head. This causes a reflex narrowing of the blood vessels and helps stop the bleeding. After it is recommended to soften the nasal mucosa with petroleum jelly, baby cream.

When crusts form in the nose, do not immediately remove them; it is better to instill vaseline oil or a solution of hydrogen peroxide in the nose to soften them. At first, after stopping the bleeding, it is undesirable to tilt the head or body down. In the absence of the effect of these measures or initially severe bleeding, a gauze swab moistened with a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide or liquid paraffin should be introduced into the bleeding nasal passage. Can be used to plug a nasal cavity with a hemostatic sponge or fibrin film.

Based on Quick Help in Emergencies.
Kashin S.P..

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