The equipment of bullet cartridges requires great care, because sometimes the life of a hunter depends on a bullet firing, since hunting objects are often dangerous for humans. It is highly desirable that the hunting rifle be shot by a bullet..
Equipment for hunting bullet cartridges with a round bullet, Witt, Polev, Mayer, Foster and McElvin bullets.
When equipping bullet cartridges, you should first carefully select the components. The sleeve must be new, the capsules and gunpowder belong to one batch. The inner diameter of the sleeve should strictly correspond to the diameter of the bore, and the mass of wad, as well as bullets, should not vary greatly in different cartridges. Bullets are naturally given special attention.
The bullet body in diameter should be 0.4-0.5 mm smaller than the diameter of the strongest muzzle narrowing, and the diameter of the leading ribs should not deviate from the actual diameter of the barrel bore by more than 0.05 mm. The bullet should not have any burrs, potholes, or dents, since this all affects the displacement of its center of gravity from the axis of symmetry and the resistance of the head part of the bullet to the oncoming air flow.
If the bullet has a plastic wad, then its obturating part should be 0.05 mm larger than the diameter of the barrel bore. If there is a felt wad, its height should be the same for all equipped bullets.
Bullet Cartridge Equipment Basics.
The bullet cartridges are outfitted in general as follows: the Zhevelo capsule is pressed into the new cartridge case (the Centroboy is also used in small calibres). Then a charge of gunpowder is poured, weighed up to an accuracy of 0.01 g. Gunpowder should be taken 8-10% more than recommended for equipping a shot cartridge with the same projectile mass and under the same conditions.
If the instruction for gunpowder indicates the maximum permissible mass of the powder charge, then you need to take a slightly smaller amount of gunpowder and increase it only in case of unsatisfactory combat due to its small weight (good accuracy below the aiming point). If the bullets lie above the aiming point or their spread is too large, then the weight of gunpowder should be reduced.
Recommended masses of charges of gunpowder “Falcon” for equipping bullet cartridges when using felt wad.
(according to Blum, Volnov, 1980)
Cardboard gaskets with a thickness of 2.5-3 mm or a polyethylene (less often cardboard) sealant are sent to the gunpowder. It should be remembered that the use of a polyethylene obturator requires a decrease in the weight of gunpowder by about 0.2 g in comparison with a similar cartridge in which cardboard wad-gaskets are used. A salted main felt wad is sent to a cardboard pad or a shutter, and an additional un salted wad is added to it if necessary.
On a felt wad, on its upper side, it is recommended to make a cruciform incision at almost full depth, so that after departure from the trunk it would less affect the flight of the bullet. The height of the wad is determined by the design of the bullet. For bullets with a stabilizer shank, it is smaller than for bullets that do not have such a shank.
A bullet is sent to the wad, and the sleeve is rolled by hand or table spin, which has a special recess in the matrix, which eliminates the possibility of deformation of the protruding head of the bullet (in Brenneke, BS, Ilyin) during rolling.
Shotguns with a muzzle narrowing are often used sub-caliber bullets, i.e. bullets of a smaller caliber (in a 12-gauge gun – a 16-bullet, etc.). When using sub-caliber bullets, they should be centered and secured in a sleeve in some way. To do this, use tube parts of a smaller-caliber sleeve, a plastic container, a strip of paper, etc..
It is most expedient to use the Brenneke bullet, which has a rather large mass and a stabilizer shank, as a sub-caliber. Facilitating its fastening in a larger caliber sleeve. Light sub-caliber bullets can cause worse combustion of smokeless gunpowder and defective shots. With their equipment it is better to use shutters.
Round bullet ammunition.
Equipment cartridges often used (especially on the periphery) round bullet is somewhat different from the above scheme. Most authors recommend installing a felt wad at least 1/2 gauge high on top of it and then roll up the sleeve.
From the lower edge of the wad, it is necessary to cut a chamfer of 4-5 mm at an angle of 45 degrees so that when passing through the barrel bore the edge of the wad would not be pulled under the bullet, because this will cause the barrel to rupture or swell. Some authors, however, believe that this does not guarantee safety when firing, and deny the possibility of installing a wad over a round bullet.
Different ways to center a round round bullet.
When firing a sub-caliber round bullet, which is most often used by hunters, it is centered using a strip of paper with ribs from matches or cardboard glued to it, a plastic container, a piece of oiled fabric or suede into which the bullet is wrapped, etc. Round sub-caliber bullets equipped in brass sleeves are centered and then poured with a mixture of petroleum jelly and paraffin or wax.
Features of equipment bullet cartridges bullets Witt, Polev, Shirinsky-Shikhmatov.
A wide variety of bullet designs determines significant “individual” deviations when they are equipped with cartridges. For example, bullets having a stabilizer wad of great height (Witt, Polev, Shirinsky-Shikhmatov) are usually installed directly on gunpowder or on a cardboard pad.
Schemes of bullet cartridges equipped with the Yakan bullet, the Brenneke sub-caliber bullet, the Shirinsky-Shikhmatov bullet.
Features of equipment bullet cartridges bullet Mayer.
An example of a bullet that requires a special way to equip a cartridge is Mayer bullet. 2 g of Sokol gunpowder is poured into a paper sleeve with a Zhevelo capsule (with a bullet weight of 33 g and a temperature of at least minus 4 degrees). Gunpowder is compressed with a force of 4-5 kg. Cardboard pads with a total thickness of 2.5-3 mm are sent to the powder. Then a felt wad half the caliber of the trunk. Cut in height into 4 parts.
Scheme of a bullet cartridge equipped with a Mayer bullet.
Small sawdust is poured onto the wad. A cardboard pad 0.6-0.7 mm thick is sent to them. It is installed another gasket 3 mm thick with a diameter equal to the diameter of the body of the bullet without guide ribs. This gasket must be positioned exactly in the center of the sleeve tube. Then insert the bullet so that the aforementioned cardboard strip of reduced diameter does not move to the side, and the sleeve is rolled.
Scheme of bullet cartridges equipped with a Foster bullet and a McElvin bullet.
Pile saws are selected so high that 5-6 mm of barrel sleeve are left for rolling. When firing from light (2.9-3.1 kg for the 12th caliber) rifles with cartridges equipped in this way (as suggested by the author of the bullet), excellent results are achieved. However, if the Mayer bullet is equipped in the usual way, the performance noticeably worsens.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Rudenko F.A., Semashko V.Yu., Cherenkov S.E., Matyunin M.M..