Explosive traps use explosives to defeat a victim. An explosion can impact a victim with both explosion products and a shock wave, as well as fragments, killers, flammable liquids and toxic substances. Explosive devices may be underground, at ground level and above ground.
Explosives in explosive traps, application features, fragments, their destructive ability.
The best conditions for destruction by fragments and a blast wave in the absence of direct contact with the charge are provided with an aboveground explosion, the worst – with an underground. When using propellant explosives (gunpowder), charges are more often buried in the ground and they work either in direct contact with the victim, or heavy stones laid in the ground throw in direction, sometimes they shoot themselves. They can also be buried in the ground either at a slight angle or vertically upwards..
Detonating explosives (BB), when buried in the ground, can hit the victim both in direct contact (when stepping on them), or in directional throwing of fragments (combustible liquids). Charges exploding at ground level have greater efficiency, even those that explode higher. They are either mounted on tall objects, trees, poles, on hills, windows and roofs, with directional throwing of fragments, or they are equipped with jumping mines.
Shrapnel in shrapnel ammunition, use and damage.
Shrapnel in fragmentation ammunition can form when the hull ruptures or is contained in the form of ready-made slaughter elements. There are intermediate options, when the finished slaughter elements (wire, nails, or rings with a notch) are torn additionally into pieces. Ready-made slaughter elements can simply be poured between the walls of the body, or they can be embedded in the body using a binder (polymers, cement, etc.).
The fragments can be directed directionally with different scattering angles and evenly in different directions. There are also many intermediate options. Get directional flight of fragments in two ways. One older one repeats mostly shrapnel ammunition using propellant explosives. Ready slaughter elements are placed in a tube closed at one end above the explosive charge. A more modern method consists in applying 1-2 layers of killer elements over a plastic explosive.
With a flat plate, its own expansion of fragments is 4 degrees in all directions. This angle is increased to 60 degrees due to the bending of the body. High-explosive explosives are used for the manufacture. In the first design, the explosive brisance should be reduced, there should not be many layers of slaughter elements, since they will deform and the range of damage will decrease, in addition, the dispersion of fragments will increase.
To impart greater explosive ability to the explosion products and some incendiary effect, a large amount of powdered aluminum is added to explosive nitro compounds. 30% aluminum powder, 30% aluminum grits or chips and 40% hexogen or octagen, 50% aluminum powder, 50% trinitrotoluene. For piercing armor do cumulative charges.
To destroy buildings and structures, explosive charges are laid in pits with subsequent driving of the charge. This is the most difficult, ancient and effective way. With the advent of blasting explosives, overhead charges began to be used and applied to interruptible structures. They were able to significantly increase the efficiency of such charges by using soil powder, usually in bags. Or various struts that perform their function. Exploding concrete appeared, containing 3% sand, 5% Portland cement, the rest is octagen.