In winter, water production is somewhat more complicated. Ponds are mostly covered with an insurmountable crust of ice, fontanelles and keys freeze. Drinking water has to be heated from ice and snow.
Extraction of water from ice and snow, water of animal origin, a little about the value of salt when surviving in extreme conditions.
At the same time, ice is preferable to snow, since it has fewer air capillaries and therefore melts faster. From ice, twice as much water is obtained than from snow, with half as much heat. Before melting, ice should be chopped into as small pieces as possible..
, cans, etc. containers and, placed under clothes, melt with body heat.
A small amount of water can be obtained by making a snowball out of the snow and, squeezing it with your hands, substitute an open mouth or container under the drops. Closer to spring, when the sun begins to warm, you can throw 15 20 handfuls of snow on a large stone heated by the sun, facing south and having a hollow on the surface. Put the dishes to the mouth of the hollow. In a few minutes you can collect up to 1 liter of water from one large stone. The same method has been successfully applied in the highlands. In the absence of a suitable stone, it can be successfully replaced with a polyethylene, best of all black film, which warms up more strongly in the sun, spread out on a slope illuminated by the sun inside a small dug trough.
Throw snow onto the film with a thin layer, which, thawing, will flow through the gutter into the container that is installed in the lower part. On more even platforms, the tank can be installed in pre-dug pits. In addition, you can lay snow in makeshift bags suspended over tripods on the water tank. If sunlight is not enough to melt, a fire can be built near the bag. You can disinfect water melted from snow using any of the following methods..
Animal water extraction.
The eyes of animals contain water, it can be obtained by exhaustion. Any fish contains potable liquid. Large fish, in particular, have a cavity that stretches along the spine and is filled with fresh water. To get it, gut the fish and holding it on its side, remove the ridge, being careful not to spill liquid, then drink it.
If there is very little water, then try not to use other juices contained in fish meat. They are rich in protein, and their digestion will divert fluid from vital organs. Desert animals can also be a source of moisture. For example, in northwestern Australia, Aborigines dig up desert frogs that hide in the ground. Inside the frog’s body contains water that can be squeezed out of it.
The value of salt for survival in extreme conditions.
An important element necessary for human survival is salt. A normal daily diet usually contains about 10 grams of salt. The body loses salt with sweat and urine, and you need to compensate for this loss. The first symptoms of a lack of salt in the body are muscle cramps, dizziness, nausea, and fatigue. To restore the salt balance, you should dissolve a pinch of salt in 500 g of water and drink this solution. Salt tablets must be included in the survival kit.
Crush them and dissolve in an appropriate amount of water. Do not swallow the tablets whole, as this can cause indigestion and damage the kidneys. If the salt reserves are depleted, and you are near the sea, then remember that a liter of sea water contains about 15 grams of salt, but do not drink it in its pure form, but dissolve it in a large amount of fresh water or evaporate salt crystals from it. If there are no direct sources of salt, then you will have to make up for it by consuming animal blood, which is a valuable source of minerals.
Partially used materials from books:
Man in extreme environmental conditions. V.G. Volovich.
Great encyclopedia of survival in extreme situations. A. Ilyichev.