Fainting is a sudden short-term loss of consciousness, in which there is a sharp decrease in muscle tone, the activity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is weakened. Fainting is a mild form of acute cerebrovascular accident and is caused by anemia in the brain. Most often, fainting occurs in women. People who are prone to fainting are characterized by lean physique, heart rate inconsistency, and low blood pressure..
Fainting, causes and initial symptoms of fainting, first aid for fainting.
Psychological trauma, the appearance of blood, pain irritation, prolonged stay in a stuffy room, intoxication with various non-infectious and infectious diseases, as well as a hungry condition can provoke fainting.
with the tonus of muscles turned off, the patient begins to slowly settle. At the peak of fainting, deep reflexes are lost, the pulse becomes very weak, breathing becomes superficial, blood pressure decreases.
The duration of such an attack is several tens of seconds, and then a quick and complete recovery of consciousness occurs without memory loss. Sometimes a swoon may last several minutes.
Very rarely, excessive salivation, involuntary urination and defecation appear. At the end of syncope, general weakness persists for some time, the patient feels sick, there are discomfort in the abdomen.
When severe fainting develops, accompanied by convulsions, they must be distinguished from epilepsy attacks, for which the patient’s condition after the attack and the data of electroencephalography should be taken into account. After usual fainting, in contrast to epilepsy, drowsiness is rarely observed, memory loss does not develop..
First aid for syncope.
The victim must be put on his back (while the head should be slightly lowered relative to the legs), unfasten the collar of outer clothing, provide access to fresh air (or oxygen). You need to bring cotton wool moistened with ammonia to your nose and spray your face with cold water.
In a more serious condition, the patient is injected subcutaneously with a 10% solution of caffeine or cordiamine, cardiovascular agents (0.5–1 ml of a 5% solution of ephedrine hydrochloride, 0.5–1 ml of a 15% solution of mesatone) can be administered subcutaneously or intravenously.
Hospitalization in most cases is not required. Fainting in the presence of chronic diseases does not imply any special therapeutic measures. First of all, they treat the underlying disease, which provokes their development.
Based on the book “Quick help in emergency situations”.