The group of transparent soups includes completely transparent, clarified, as well as not clarified, but quite transparent meat and bone and fish broths with various side dishes. The best meat broths for these soups are obtained from beef, chicken and game (especially from hazel grouse, sometimes from a rabbit), since they contain a large amount of extractive substances. Transparent fish broth is prepared mainly from ruffs, perches, zander, sterlet, sturgeon and burbot.
Features of the preparation of transparent soups, transparent meat and bone, meat and fish broths with various side dishes, recipes of transparent soups.
In the manufacture of transparent soups, it is necessary from the very beginning to ensure the transparency of the broth, and to give the meat a still pleasant golden color. Therefore, they are cooked mainly from tubular sugar bones. If the broth is cooked from the vertebral bones, then the spinal cord, which makes the broth cloudy, is necessarily removed from them. For color, aroma, transparency before cooking the broth, beef, veal bones (except for costal and vertebral), as well as poultry, it is recommended to lightly fry without fat (tighten).
(ear) – with parsley, celery and onions. In order to give the broth a golden color, you can lower the whole head of the onion together with the upper skin into it. When the broth is boiled, the onion must be removed from it. The broth will have a golden color if you add lightly fried onions and roots to it.
To obtain a strong saturated transparent meat broth, meat should be laid only in cold water and cook first on low, and then on medium heat. With this cooking method, extractives are released from the meat gradually and completely. The bones must be finely chopped. Cut off the head of the tubular bones, remove the bone marrow, which gives the broth turbidity.
To make the broth transparent, it is clarified (drawn off), as a result of which the broths are saturated with extractive substances. To clarify 1 liter of meat broth, 75 g of meat and 6-7 g of egg white are required. Braces increase the concentration of transparent broths. The bird for the broth should be taken not old, well-fed, but not greasy. Of old chickens and young chickens, the broth will not be transparent enough. Excess fat from meat and poultry can be cut, melted and used for roasting or cooking paste, deep-frying and other purposes.
Salted fish broth before cooking, meat and mushroom – at the end of cooking. The broth should be clear, oily and tasteful. In order to make it transparent, foam should be removed from it as soon as it forms. After removing the first foam, pour a glass of cold water into the pan. This helps to raise the remaining foam to the surface. When all the foam has been removed, wipe the edges of the pan with a damp cloth so that there are no dark smudges from the foam.
Types of broths, consom, jelly.
The broth may be strong or normal. Konsome is a very concentrated broth. Konsome is prepared from a large amount of beef, veal or poultry. The broth and consom are strictly contraindicated in diseases of the stomach, liver and other things. Jelly is a concentrated meat broth obtained from cooking cartilage parts that contain a lot of gelatin. The cartilaginous parts of young animals (calf, pig) contain a significant amount of gelatin.
Of poultry, the largest amount of gelatin is found in rooster meat. In other birds (geese, turkeys) gelatin is found only in the legs, wings, neck and head. You can prepare the lowest quality jelly from one pig skin. This jelly is harder than jelly, especially since it is added with leaves of gelatin (the fish also contains gelatin). Jelly should be firm, transparent and tasteful. It is used finely chopped to decorate various cold dishes, or pour various dishes, for example, hard-boiled eggs, liver paste and other things.
The broth may be yellow, white and red. Yellow broth serves as the basis for all clear soups. Such a broth is prepared with noodles, dumplings, meatballs or served without a side dish with pies, pies, pies, pancakes, croutons, potato croquettes, etc., which are placed on a dish, in baskets, crackers. White broth is the basis for filling soups: cabbage soup, borscht, pickles, chowder, as well as mashed soups. Red broth used to make sticky French soups and sauces.
The transparent broth is served in broth cups without a side dish or in a deep plate in which the side dish is placed, after which a transparent broth is poured. Garnish – vegetables, pasta, baked rice, eggs, dumplings, meatballs, etc. – are prepared separately. To the broth in cups serve croutons, pies, pies and pies with rice, cabbage, carrots, meat, to the broths with side dishes – pies, to the borshchik – croutons with cheese. White bread, pies and kulebyaki served to a transparent fish ear.
Based on the book Thousand Soup Recipes.
Roshal V. M.