When surviving in an emergency, it is most realistic to get small and medium animals. Rats, field mice, jerboas, ground squirrels, groundhogs, lemmings, rabbits, squirrels, hedgehogs, porcupines, badgers, okapi, muskrats, etc. All animals have their heads and tails cut off. For processing and cooking, two methods are used..
Features of the processing, preparation, storage and conservation of meat of animals, fish and poultry during survival in an emergency.
First processing method consists in pre-refreshing the animals, i.e., removing the skins from it and subsequent gutting. An animal of any size needs to be replenished as soon as possible after killing. Firstly, because it is better to remove the skin, and secondly, there is less chance of damage in the hot season. Small and medium animals are hung upside down by their hind legs and a spacer from a stick is inserted between them. Then they cut the throat and bleed, which is desirable to preserve, since, after boiling, it can be eaten.
After this, the skin should be cut near the elbow and knee joints and along the hind legs, connecting them and continuing the incision on the belly, and from it to the elbow joints. Having done this operation, the skin can be removed starting from the knee joints. Then it is necessary to spread the belly and remove the insides, starting from the trachea and moving down. The circular movement of the knife removes the genitals. For use in food from the intestines, kidneys, liver, heart, and body fat are suitable. You can gut a wild rabbit like this: tightly clasp a hare with both hands in the chest area; squeeze the body strongly towards the stomach; tight pressing, sharply swing the carcass between the legs.
The skins of large animals are removed as well as small ones, but if there is no time and the skin is not needed, and there is too much meat and it will not be possible to save it, then you can cut the carcass of an animal of medium and large sizes directly on the ground. Putting it on your back, making all the cuts, but not removing the skin, completely release it so that you can cut the best pieces of meat. If necessary, save the skin for later use (for example, when sewing clothes and shoes), it is stretched out on leaves or grass with an open blade and with a knife, sharp-pointed or other sharp scraper to clean off the remains of meat, fat, blood from it.
Second processing method consists in the fact that the skin is not removed from small animals at all, but only an incision is made on the abdomen and all the insides are removed and the genitals are cut out. Then, inside the carcass, you can put various roots and herbs, as well as the liver, kidneys, heart, after which the whole carcass is plentifully rolled into clay and put in the hot coals of the fire. After 1.5-2 hours, the clay ball can be removed from the fire, cooled and the clay removed. Together with it, the skin will be removed, and the vegea and small porcupines with skin and thorns.
After refreshment, processing and washing, rats, mice, porcupines and badgers are boiled for 10-15 minutes, the water is drained and only after that they are put in soup. Ground squirrels and especially marmots have a lot of subcutaneous and internal fat, which can be used for frying and even stored after overheating. Rabbits taste very good, but they have little fat. The same applies to ungulates. Sea animals: seal, seal, lahtak (sea hare) smell strongly of blubber, and before eating their meat must be soaked for several hours. In the absence of salt, you can first soak in sea water, and then in fresh water. Lahtak liver is inedible. In all animals, when the liver is excised, the gall bladder is carefully removed from it (deer do not have it).
cooking counted from the moment of immersion in water. With an increase in height for every 168 meters, the boiling point drops by one degree. At altitudes of up to 1,500 meters, this lowering of the boiling point does not matter, but at higher altitudes it is increasingly affecting the increase in cooking time. At very high altitudes, it is better to fry food.
Storage and preservation of meat of animals, fish and poultry after processing.
In winter, the problem of preserving products after processing does not exist. It is enough to lay out fish and meat in the frost. In the frozen state, they persist for a long time. Another thing in the summer. The process of decay of meat and fish products, wilting and spoilage of plant foods occurs from 1 hour to several hours, depending on temperature and humidity. The first thing to do is to gut game and fish, and the gills must be removed from the fish, because it is from them that the process of decay begins.
After evisceration, the fish is wrapped in nettles, having also filled the gutted interior with it. You can also fish in the sun, but be sure to spread it on the ridge and constantly drive flies away. It is impossible to store fish dried for a long time without salting; it quickly deteriorates. It is best to grind the meat (in the absence of salt), or rather, to wither it, putting slices 30-40 cm long and 3-4 cm thick on twigs and placing it above the smoky fire until it turns brown and brittle. For smoking fish and meat, you can use enough raw fuel, which gives a lot of smoke: rot, talnik, juniper, pine cones, fallen leaves and raw larch.
To give smoked meats a better taste, oak bark, juniper berries, and fragrant herbs are added to the fuel. Charcoal is completely unsuitable; its smoke spoils food. Bad and tarry firewood. If the firewood is very hot, they are moistened with water. Hot smoking is carried out at temperatures up to 130 degrees, and cold at 35-40 degrees. Hot smoked products do not last long and should be used within a few days. With cold smoking, the product is very resistant and can withstand long-term storage, but the smoking process continues for several days.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.