Usually the first sign of a fire is smoke. Call the fire department immediately. If the flame is still small try to put out the fire by covering it with a blanket or a thick curtain (to block the access of oxygen) or using sand, water, a fire extinguisher. All that is suitable.
Fire in the city. Evacuation from a burning building, waiting for help and rescue through fire.
If there is even the slightest suspicion that a fire has arisen in electrical equipment, do not use water to extinguish until the power is turned off. Also turn off the gas supply. If a TV or computer monitor lights up, do not use water to extinguish them. Even after disconnection, a residual electric charge is retained which can lead to electric shock and even death, and cold water can cause a tube explosion. Put them out and approach them from behind because of the danger of a kinescope explosion.
Fire extinguisher, types and applications for extinguishing a fire.
Determine the type of fire extinguisher. Some of them are used in case of a simple small fire and contain water. They are not suitable for extinguishing oil products or electrical equipment. Others are designed to extinguish oil products, oils, paints or solvents. For example, for oil that spills into a pan or spills gasoline.
The third type is used to extinguish ignited electrical equipment or where there are live wires. The dry chemical versatile fire extinguisher can be used in almost all fires. Know how to use your fire extinguisher. Pull or otherwise remove the fuse. Point to the base of the flame. Press the release lever or button. Move side to side.
Fire evacuation from a burning building.
If the fire is already too big to deal with improvised means, leave the building. Disconnect power to the shield. Close all doors and windows that are easily accessible. Try to restrain the fire until the end of the evacuation and limit its spread until the firefighters arrive. Up fire spreads faster than down. Although the collapsed ceiling will transfer the flame to the lower level. Particularly dangerous stairs, elevator and ventilation shafts.
Do not use the elevator during a fire. If you need to go down, then use a non-smoky staircase. Before opening any of the doors, see if smoke comes from the gaps around it and the degree of heating. Door handles are a good indicator. If they are warm, then do not open the door. Try the back of your hand, as if you grab the handle, you can get a burn. A massive monolithic door can hold fire for 30 minutes or more, but do not rely on it with modern panel doors unless it is a fire door.
If there is no alternative to exit through the burning room, then opening the door to it, hold it with your foot so that only a narrow gap is opened. This will help prevent its expansion by the expanding hot air and the gases inside. When entering, bend low and open the door as little as possible. This will limit the effects of smoke and heat on you and reduce the risk of fire passing through the gap in the door. Close the door behind you to slow down the fire.
Waiting for help in a building fire.
If you cannot get to a safe place on your own, go to the room farthest from the fire, but not at a higher level, if you are not sure that firefighters with stairs or other equipment are already nearby. If there is no choice, step into a room where there is softer soil under the windows and there are no dangerous objects, or where there are curtains, bedding, etc., from which you can make a means of descent. The lawn, flowerbed and even a gravel path is softer than cobblestone, concrete and asphalt. If you still have to jump onto a hard surface, then the inclined surface is less traumatic.
Close the door and plug or close all the gaps around it with curtains, rugs or other dense cloth, so that it takes as much time as possible to light it. If possible, moisten the cloth. If a fire has not yet been reported, try to get attention through the window. Use a piece of furniture to break the window. You can knock the glass out with your foot, but do not push your leg back too quickly so that you do not get injured by large fragments during the reverse movement. If you have to beat with your hand, first wrap it with something. Or if you have a thick jacket, jacket, you can hit with your elbow.
Preparing to jump from a burning building.
If help does not come, then do not jump, but jump, jump. Tie sheets, tablecloths, blankets, bedspreads, and other durable fabric together to make a rope. Even if it does not reach the earth, it will reduce the height from which you have to fall. Bind with straight knots and check each of them for tension. Pull a heavy piece of furniture to the window and tie your rope to it or to the heating pipes, or break the glass and tie it to the strong part of the window frame. If the rope is not long enough, throw down under the window pillows, ottomans, mattress. Anything that can soften your landing.
If there is nothing suitable as a rope, get out of the window, holding the window sill with your hands; if there is no window sill, hold onto the lower trim of the frame. Do not jump out if there are no rescuers or firefighters below who are ready to catch you on a lifebelt or something that replaces it. Use everything that can slow down the fall, do not try to fall without interference. The roof of the car is a good way to mitigate the fall, as it will bend under the influence of your weight. Caution: trees can slow down the fall, but there is a risk of running into branches.
High jump from a burning building.
After taking all the recommended precautions to reduce the height of your fall, consider head protection. A motorcycle helmet would fit perfectly, but a knitted hat or towel wrapped around your head will also help to some extent. When you find yourself as low as possible and are ready to jump, push off the side of one foot from the wall and letting go, turn around face off the wall and bend your knees. Leave your hands at the top to protect the sides of the head. When landing, bend your knees and fall on one side with a roll on your back (continuing to protect your head and raising your legs in the air). This will help to spread the force of impact over a large area and improve your chances..
Jump from a burning building to the slope.
When landing on a slope, face your face toward the lower slope, keep your legs slightly bent at the knees. Tilt your head to the chest, and firmly press the chunks to the sides, palms protecting the head. Land on your full feet, allowing your knees to bend fully and making a full roll forward. This method is used by paratroopers. Before taking risks, jumping from a height of more than 4 meters, try to use every chance of salvation, including waiting for help.
Fire rescue in a building fire.
If you are forced to go through the fire, to do this successfully, cover yourself (including your head) with a blanket, curtain or outerwear, wet the cloth if you can. Take a deep breath and go. If your clothes catch fire, then bypassing the fire, do not stay on your feet. Fire and smoke will rise up the body to the face and into the lungs. Do not run it will only fan the flame. Roll on the ground, try to wrap yourself in something that would drown the flames of a rug, blanket or outerwear. If someone else runs out of the flame in burning clothing, lay him on the ground and use the same methods to stop oxygen from reaching the flame. Do not hug the victim so that your clothes do not catch fire.
Based on the book Complete Survival Guide for Extreme Situations, in the Wild, on Land and at Sea.