First aid and self-help for injuries in extreme situations and field conditions.

For injuries and injuries in extreme situations and field conditions, quick first aid or self-help is important. As particles of earth enter the wound, in which tetanus germs are everywhere on the planet. The most serious infectious disease leading to the death of the patient in 99% of cases. The most careful treatment of the wound does not guarantee that the tetanus bacillus does not begin to multiply in it.. 

First aid and self-help for injuries in extreme situations and field conditions.

The only way to protect against this formidable disease is preventive vaccination or the administration of tetanus toxoid in the first hours after an injury. Immunity after vaccination is unstable and lasts up to 3-5 years. Therefore, to prevent the occurrence of tetanus, regular vaccination is necessary..

First aid and self-help for injuries in extreme situations and field conditions.

Another formidable infectious wound complication is gas gangrene, the causative agent of which is also common in the soil. Unlike tetanus, there is no vaccine for gas gangrene. The only effective remedy for this disease is a thorough special surgical treatment of the wound and large doses of antibiotics.

Classification of injuries and injuries.

Depending on the nature of the damage and the weapon that caused the wound, wounds are distinguished: superficial (damage to the skin), deep (damage to soft tissues, ligaments, tendons, bones). Superficial wounds include scratches, abrasions, superficial bruises, scalp wounds. Deep wounds include punctured, cut, chopped, gunshot and bruised wounds with or without damage to large vessels. Wounds are also classified by size and depth, the presence or absence of bleeding, type of bleeding (venous, arterial, capillary). All wounds received in the field are infected.

Extensive and deep wounds are the most dangerous, as they cause profuse bleeding and quickly become contaminated. The main danger is getting into the wound of pathogenic microbes. Sources of such pollution can be air, earth, clothing, dirty hands, which are self-help, dressings, etc. The conditions under which emergency first-aid care is provided and especially self-help in extreme situations are clearly far from sterility.

Nevertheless, self-help is necessary and urgent measures are taken to stop the bleeding and clean the wound. The main role in the effectiveness of all actions is played by the presence of a nearby source of clean water (rivers, streams, lakes, etc.). Having washed your hands thoroughly, the wound is cleaned and washed. After that, depending on what is at hand from medicinal plants, then they are applied to the wound and tightly bandaged with pieces of clothing. If there is no knife, shirt, T-shirt or any other underwear torn into strips with teeth.

Medicinal plants that are used in the treatment of wounds in extreme situations and field conditions.

Title Place and condition of growth Pick time Used part Form of use For what purposes is it used
Large plantain Everywhere, in moist, lit places. May to October Leaves and seeds Fresh leaf, decoction of seeds Hemostatic, wound healing, laxative.
Icelandic Lichen Coniferous forests, peat bogs. All year round Thallus Dried Healing of wounds, burns.
Sphagnum (Moss) Peat bogs. All year round All parts of moss Dried Instead of iodine and cotton.
Stinging nettle Everywhere. June to September Leaves Fresh leaf Wound healing, hemostatic.
Hemophilus officinalis On glades, in woodlands, along river banks. September Rhizome Dry and fresh, broth Antimicrobial, hemostatic, antidiarrheal.
Larch sponge, medicinal fungus On the trunks of larch, cedar, fir. All year round Fruit body Infusion or decoction Hemostatic, laxative.
Shepherd’s bag Everywhere. All summer Grass Decoction With internal bleeding.
Mushroom caterpillar (swamp) On the banks of rivers, lakes. June August Grass Broth and fresh grass Early and burn-healing, lowers blood pressure.
Mountain ash In the undergrowth of mixed and deciduous forests. End of summer beginning of winter Berries (fruits) Berries, juice, decoction Hemostatic, diuretic.
Yarrow Meadows, bushes. June-October Tops with inflorescences Decoction Hemostatic, in case of poisoning.
Dioecious cat’s foot In taiga everywhere in pine and birch forest areas. June July Flower baskets Powder Sprinkle wounds with bleeding.

In the treatment of long-healing or festering and fetid wounds, it can be used as an external agent.

Horsetail, decoction of it is used as a compress. Pour about 200 g of water and boil for 15 minutes, then strain one herb shake (equal to one tablespoon).
Blueberry leaves, prepared as tea, used for external treatment of fresh and purulent wounds.
Field camomile, in the form of compresses, poultices and powders; prevents fistulas and scabs.
Horse sorrel, in the form of a decoction for washing old wounds and make compresses of it.
Yarrow, fresh leaves are mixed with chamomile flowers in a ratio of 3: 6 and soar; applied as a compress.
Swamp Cranberries, fresh juice from berries or gruel from them is also used in the form of lotions.
Wild grapes, fresh leaves have antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, hemostatic and wound healing effects.

Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.

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