Electrical injuries include electric shock and lightning. They are dangerous in that they often lead to death. In addition, cardiac arrest may occur within two days after them..
First aid for electrical injuries, lightning and electric shocks.
As a rule, people who are exposed to lightning are exposed in an open space during a thunderstorm. Atmospheric electricity has a damaging effect primarily due to the very high voltage (about 10,000 kV) and the discharge power.
(to the IV degree). Despite the short duration of the action of electricity, when struck by a lightning, the victim is usually in serious condition, since all parts of the nervous system are primarily affected.
Symptoms of Lightning.
When a victim is struck by lightning, loss of consciousness occurs, which lasts from several minutes to several days and is accompanied by general convulsions. After consciousness is restored, excitement, anxiety, disorientation in space and time are noted, severe pain in the limbs appears, especially in the place of the burn. Sometimes there are delusions, hallucinations, paralysis of limbs, respiratory failure; affected by severe headache, pain in the eyes.
In connection with an electric injury, vision is impaired, sometimes until blindness (due to retinal detachment), tinnitus appears. Often there is a burn of the eyeball with clouding of the cornea. On the skin of the victim quite often you can see the characteristic signs in the form of a tree (the sign of lightning). They have a crimson brown color and go along the blood vessels. Rarely, the hearing is disturbed in the victims, there is pain behind the sternum, hemoptysis, and pulmonary edema develops. Disorders of the nervous system in the form of paralysis, increased skin sensitivity persist for a long time and are difficult to treat.
First aid for lightning.
When cardiac activity stops, an indirect cardiac massage is urgently needed, and at the same time, artificial respiration. These measures are necessary, even if the activity of the heart is preserved, but there is a severe respiratory failure. Typically, cardiac arrest occurs due to a chaotic contraction of the muscle fibers of the ventricles of the heart after exposure to electricity. If it is possible to feel the pulsation on large blood vessels, and the patient has narrow pupils at this time and there are some rare breaths, you can’t stop resuscitation.
If possible, the patient undergoes defibrillation of the heart. It consists in the hardware effect of an electric discharge on the region of the heart, leading to the cessation of chaotic contractions of the heart muscle fibers and to the launch of full-fledged heart contractions in a normal rhythm. With reduced blood pressure, reopoliglukin, a 5% glucose solution with prednisolone or hydrocortisone, is administered intravenously. If the patient is agitated and severe pain bothers him, then a mixture consisting of 2.5% chlorpromazine solution, 1% promedol solution and 1% diphenhydramine solution, or a mixture of 0.005% fentanyl solution with 0.25% droperidol solution is injected intravenously or intramuscularly.
If the pain cannot be removed, then the patient is anesthetized with nitrous oxide. To relieve seizures, anticonvulsants (diazepam, sodium hydroxybutyrate, etc.) are administered intravenously. It is necessary to deliver the victim to the hospital on a stretcher in the supine position, as there may be vomiting and vomiting in the respiratory tract. The patient is hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Before entering the hospital, diuretics are not used, in a hospital they are administered for pulmonary or cerebral edema..
Electric shock usually occurs due to non-compliance with safety regulations when using electrical appliances both at home and at work. In more rare cases, it is associated with stekhnogennymi catastrophes. The higher the voltage and the longer the exposure to electric current on a person, the greater the severity of the lesion, even fatal. In places on the body where electric current enters and exits (usually on the arms and legs), severe electric burns and even charring appear.
With a lighter electrical injury, the so-called current marks are visible on the body in the form of rounded spots with a diameter of 1 to 5 cm, dark inside and bluish at the edges. Unlike conventional burns, with electric trauma, hair scorching does not occur. Of great importance is which particular organs were affected by electric shock. This can be assumed by mentally connecting the input and output areas of the current.
Particular danger arises when electric current passes through the heart and brain, as a result of which cardiac arrest and breathing are possible. The heart can be affected by any electrical injury. With a severe electric shock, signs of myocardial infarction appear in the form of a frequent weak pulse, low blood pressure; marked marked pallor of the victim, fear, rapid and shallow breathing. Often there are cramps with respiratory arrest.
First aid for electric shock.
First of all, the victim should be released as soon as possible from contact with the source of electricity. Why do you need to turn off the power, and if not possible, discard the torn wire with a wooden (dry!) Stick. If the person assisting in rubber boots and rubber gloves, then you can do without a stick, but simply take the victim away from the power cord. When respiratory arrest and cardiac arrest occur, then resuscitation must begin. A sterile dressing is applied to the burn area on the body..
The victim is taken to the burn or surgical ward while lying on a stretcher. There, if necessary, it is connected to an artificial lung ventilation apparatus, cardiovascular preparations are administered: 0.1% solution of adrenaline hydrochloride, cordiamine and 10% caffeine solution. In addition, drugs that stimulate respiration are administered: 1% lobelin hydrochloride solution, 0.5% bemegrid solution, etc. Glucose and corglycon solutions are administered intravenously. For a long time they do not stop performing artificial respiration. If cardiac arrest has occurred, an indirect cardiac massage is started, 0.1% adrenaline hydrochloride solution and 10% calcium chloride solution are administered intracardially.
Based on Quick Help in Emergencies.