Bleeding is the bleeding of blood from a damaged blood vessel, which can be external or internal (from the organs of the chest or abdominal cavity). With external bleeding, arterial, venous and capillary.
First aid for external bleeding, stopping venous and arterial bleeding, rules for applying a tourniquet and twist.
Arterial bleeding is distinguished by the outflow of scarlet blood, which flows from a gaping wound with a pulsating stream. For venous bleeding, the outflow from a wound of dark blood is characterized by a continuous continuous stream.
Actions for venous bleeding.
Finger compression of a vein is carried out for a short stop of bleeding. A tourniquet below the wound is recommended for massive bleeding. The elevated position of the limb, wound tamponade and a tight bandage (pressure) dressing are designed to stop venous bleeding. In most cases, this helps to avoid the use of such rather dangerous methods of stopping bleeding as applying a twist or tourniquet..
Actions for arterial bleeding.
Arterial bleeding leads to large blood loss in a short time. Therefore, after an injury, you must immediately take the necessary measures.
Finger artery pressure for arterial bleeding.
The stopping of bleeding always begins with this method, and only then other, more advanced ones are used – more often in the form of applying a tight pressure dressing or tourniquet. To perform a digital pressure of the vessel, you need to know well the places where the damaged artery is not very deep and where it can be pressed to the bone. Usually in such places it is always possible to feel the pulsation of arterial vessels.
When bleeding from a wound located on the shoulder girdle, shoulder or forearm, bleeding can be stopped by pressing the thumb of the subclavian artery to the 1st rib above the clavicle or pressing the brachial artery to the humerus. With the development of arterial bleeding from a wound of the lower extremity, the femoral artery is pressed to the pubic bone in the region of the inguinal fold. When pressing the artery with your finger in the right places, you need to make a significant effort. The artery should not be pressed briefly, for the time it takes to apply a pressure bandage, tourniquet or twist.
Applying a tourniquet above the wound. Rules for applying a tourniquet and a twist for bleeding.
The tourniquet is applied to the limb with severe bleeding (from arteries or large veins). Instead, you can use a spin. This method of stopping bleeding requires compliance with a number of rules..
1. A tourniquet should be applied as close as possible to the wound.
2. Before applying a tourniquet to a limb, if possible, it must be elevated.
3. The tourniquet must be applied to clothing or any padding in the form of a scarf, scarf, towel.
4. Before applying the tourniquet, you should first try to stop the bleeding by pressing your finger.
5. It is necessary to securely fasten the applied tourniquet.
6. It is unacceptable to keep the tourniquet on the limbs for more than 2 hours in the summer and 1–1.5 hours in the winter, since the termination of blood supply to the limb for a longer period at low temperatures leads to its necrosis.
7. After the tourniquet is applied, you need to attach a note to it indicating the date and exact time of its application.
8. In winter, a limb with a tourniquet must be wrapped in clothing or other warm material.
To tighten, you can use a scarf, belt, ribbon, strip of durable fabric. These items must be placed above or below the site of injury, and their ends tied in a knot with a loop. Insert a stick into the loop, with which to tighten the twist until the bleeding stops. Then secure the free end of the stick with a bandage. When imposing a twist, observe the same rules as when using a tourniquet. Do not use thin ropes, electric wires, telephone cables for twisting, as they can damage soft tissues.
Applying a pressure dressing for bleeding.
Effective only with bleeding from small arteries. Requires additional dressing over a short period of time.
Flexion of the limb with bleeding.
With this position of the limb, the blood vessel is compressed. This can be enhanced by putting a tight cotton-gauge roller on the bend and then reliably fixing the limb in the most bent position. This technique is used to stop arterial bleeding of the extremities, but it is not suitable for stopping bleeding from wounds that are combined with bone fractures or joint damage. When bleeding is stopped in the area of the hand and forearm, it is necessary to bend the arm in the elbow joint, put a cotton-gauze roller in the elbow bend, and with a bandage or trouser belt fix the shoulder and forearm well with the maximum approximation of their surfaces.
When stopping bleeding from the subclavian region and the upper half of the shoulder, the roller is inserted into the axillary fossa. Hands should be bent at the elbow joints, placed behind the back and tightly fixed one to the other using a trouser belt or bandage bandage. Bleeding during a shin wound can be stopped by inserting a dense cotton gauze roller into the popliteal fossa or by severe bending of the leg in the knee joint and bandaging the shin to the thigh.
Based on Quick Help in Emergencies.