When eating mushrooms, poisoning with the poison contained in them is possible. Moreover, it can be mushroom or absorbed from the environment. That is why eating wild mushrooms is not recommended..
First aid for poisoning with mushrooms, stitches, pale toadstool, fly agaric, trevushki, false honey mushrooms, pigs, russula.
Children under 7 years of age due to the physiological characteristics of the body are contraindicated in any mushrooms. In addition, home-made mushroom canned food can lead to botulism, a severe foodborne toxicosis. It should be remembered that mushroom poison does not break down during cooking, and also remains in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid of gastric juice does not act on it.
in case of improper cooking or violation of the collection dates. Most often poisoning occurs with such poisonous mushrooms as false mushrooms, pale grebe, fly agaric, false morels. Of poisoning with conditionally edible mushrooms, poisoning occurs with russula, stitches, morels, thistles, and pigs..
The first signs of mushroom poisoning appear 6-10 hours after eating them. First, the victim complains of abdominal pain, then vomiting with an admixture of bile in the vomit appears, in more rare cases, loose stools. In a short time, the liver and spleen increase in size. There are signs of dehydration – pale flaccid skin, decreased blood pressure. Damage to the nervous system is manifested by severe headache, impaired consciousness (the occurrence of delirium). Subsequently, the skin turns yellow, urine becomes red. In severe cases, loss of consciousness occurs, heart failure develops. Death possible.
Emergency help for line poisoning.
It is necessary to do a gastric lavage and a cleansing enema. Inside, the victim is given a saline laxative (15-30 g of sodium sulfate) or liquid paraffin (100-150 ml.), Optionally activated charcoal. An ambulance team call is needed. If the person is unconscious, then you need to turn his head to the side in order to prevent the contents of the stomach from entering the respiratory tract. A solution of lipoic acid (20–30 mg / kg body weight per day), 0.9% sodium chloride solution (1–1.5 liters per day), polyglucin (up to 400 ml per day) are administered intravenously..
To prevent infectious complications, antibacterial drugs are immediately administered (penicillin at 100,000–200,000 units / kg body weight per day). With a significant decrease in blood pressure, 0.1% norepinephrine solution (0.9–2 ml per day) or 1% mesatone solution (0.015–0.025 ml / kg body weight per day) is used. To maintain liver function, glucocorticosteroid drugs are introduced – prednisone (2-3 mg / kg body weight per day) and hydrocortisone (5 mg / kg body weight per day). From artificial methods of blood purification, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are effective.
Pale Toad Poisoning.
Signs of poisoning with these mushrooms appear 8-24 hours after eating. First, severe abdominal pains are noted, then vomiting and abundant loose stools appear, resembling later a rice broth with streaks of blood. Body temperature drops, the pulse becomes frequent, blood pressure decreases. The victim is thirsty. Cramps occur periodically. Damage to liver poison is manifested by the rapid onset of jaundice and an increase in organ size. More often death occurs in the first 4 days from liver and kidney failure, as well as due to paralysis of the vasomotor center of the brain.
Emergency care for poisonous grebe poisoning.
Emergency measures – as with line poisoning.
Fly agaric poisoning.
The first signs of fly agaric poisoning manifest themselves very quickly – after 30 minutes – 6 hours. The victim develops nausea and vomiting, loose stools. Increased sweating and salivation are noted. Intestinal motility is activated, so rumble in the abdomen is heard from a distance. Toxic damage to the nervous system is manifested by dizziness, significant narrowing of the pupils and visual impairment. Disturbances of consciousness (delirium, hallucinations) are observed. Shortness of breath, with wet rales. Coma develops rapidly and death occurs from insufficiency of the cardiovascular system.
Emergency care for fly agaric poisoning.
It is necessary to rinse the stomach as soon as possible and make a cleansing enema. During vomiting, it is necessary to provide the victim with appropriate assistance – give water to rinse the oral cavity. To treat poisoning with fly agaric, a 0.1% solution of atropine sulfate is used, which is administered subcutaneously at 0.012–0.016 ml / kg of body weight, depending on age 4 times a day. With severe salivation, it is administered on the first day every 30-40 minutes.
Conduct infusion therapy in the regime of forced diuresis, in severe cases, glucocorticosteroid drugs are administered. To eliminate bronchospasm, use a 2.4% solution of aminophylline. It is administered in an amount of 0.12-0.16 ml / kg body weight, depending on age. Solutions of mesatone and norepinephrine are used to increase blood pressure, and cardiac glycosides are used to maintain cardiac activity. With the development of insufficiency of kidney and liver function, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis is performed..
Poisoning with thistles, false mushrooms, sows, russula.
The composition of these fungi contains milky juice, which also causes irritation of tissues (gastrointestinal mucosa). 1-2 hours after eating these mushrooms, weakness develops. Nausea and vomiting, loose stools appear. There may be abdominal pain. All these symptoms persist for 2 days, then go away..
First aid in case of poisoning by throats, false mushrooms, sows, russula.
Despite the fact that poisoning with these mushrooms does not lead to death, assistance to the victim must be provided in full. After all, it is impossible with a full guarantee to exclude the ingestion of a more poisonous mushroom in food. It is necessary to help the victim with vomiting, rinse the stomach and make a cleansing enema. To replenish fluid in the body, heavy drinking is recommended. When signs of mushroom poisoning appear, seeking medical help is mandatory.
Based on Quick Help in Emergencies.