Sunburn on the skin is possible after a long stay under ultraviolet rays. In pursuit of a perfect tan, people forget how bad it is for the body, allowing for the appearance of burns. First aid for sunburns is to immediately move into a shade or a closed room, after which the skin is cooled and special regenerating creams are applied. The lack of help leads to the fact that the skin blisters, it hurts and reddens.
- What is sunburn?
- 2 Symptoms
- 3First help
- 4How to treat?
- 4.1 Burns
- 4.2 Popular funds
- 5 First aid for sunburn in children
- 6What can not be done with sunburn?
- 7 Complications
What is sunburn?
Sunburn is an inflammatory process of the upper layers of the epithelial tissue of the skin, triggered by excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays. Most often, it appears when you are on the street in the hot season from 11 to 16 hours. In the absence of first aid and further treatment, it can provoke negative consequences, worsening the skin condition.
Signs of a burn are the following clinical manifestations:
- Redness of the skin – the color of burnt skin is several tones brighter and redder than those areas of the body that were under clothing.
- The appearance of small bubbles filled with fluid is accompanied by severe burns.
- Intense pain from any contact with the skin and irritation when wearing clothes.
In particularly dangerous cases, body temperature may rise. This is fraught with the development of dehydration, so the state of a person must be closely monitored.
The clinical manifestations of burns are different for different people. It depends on the type of skin, its fat content and the rate of sebum production. Some medicines can accelerate the appearance of a burn, accumulating in the skin and stimulating active pigmentation.
The danger of burns is that they do not appear immediately. The first signs develop after 10-12 hours, which is associated with the peculiarities of metabolic processes in the skin. Even in the absence of redness and soreness, it is impossible to be under the open sun for a long time.
First aid for sunburns of the skin is carried out according to the scheme:
Cool – irritated skin should be cooled a few degrees. To do this, take a clean cloth and moisten it in cool, but not cold water. Envelop the affected area of the body, periodically wetting the fabric in water. Water can be replaced with chilled green tea, chamomile decoction or antiseptics (Furacillin, potassium permanganate). Do not allow sudden changes in temperature on the surface of the skin and tissue. This triggers an increase in skin receptor irritation and slows down the natural regeneration processes.
Moisturize – irritated skin should be well moisturized, thus avoiding its drying out and cracking. To do this, suitable baby oil, regular vegetable or butter, which can be pre-cooled in the refrigerator. There are also a number of cosmetics designed to eliminate the effects of burns. All of them are based on dexpanthenol, which promotes the active regeneration of damaged skin cells.
Pain relief – if after 2-3 hours the skin does not hurt, then the next day the pain becomes unbearable. To relieve pain will help such groups of drugs as:
- Complex analgesics – contribute to the elimination of pain and associated symptoms.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – fight against puffiness and inflammatory process.
- Antihistamines – reduce itching and irritation.
A cool bath will help to reduce the pain and narrow the vessels. The shower is excluded, as strong jets of water can damage the already swollen skin.
How to treat?
Medical care for sunburn involves the use of several categories of drugs whose action is aimed at reducing pain, itching, swelling and redness. These are both drugs for local use and for internal use.
The most effective and easy to use are aerosols, which include the substance dexpanthenol. Its ability to moisturize the skin, nourish and normalize metabolic processes, helps in the healing of burns. The most effective of them are:
- Heppiderm Forte Aerosol.
Aerosol products are applied to the skin with a sprayer, which reduces irritation from contact with hands, as is the case when applying the cream.
But some creams contain in their composition vitamins A and E, as well as extracts from medicinal plants, which help to nourish the skin and retain moisture for a long time, preventing the processes of drying and peeling.
If you have feelings of fatigue, lethargy, pain, it is recommended to take a Paracetamol or Ibuprofen tablet, which can prevent an increase in body temperature and reduce the appearance of burns.
Help the child with sunburn is carried out as early as possible. Children’s skin is less dense, so the moisture from it evaporates several times faster. It is important to prevent the development of dehydration. To this end, the child is given abundant cool drink.
If the condition is rapidly deteriorating, and the clinical manifestations are only increasing, it is necessary to consult with a specialist. With the defeat of the deeper layers of the epidermis, complex therapy may be prescribed, which includes the use of antibiotics in order to prevent infection in the body.
First aid for sunburn can be carried out using folk recipes, the most effective of which are:
- Compresses of chamomile decoction – take 2 teaspoons of chamomile in a glass of boiling water and boil it in a water bath for 10 minutes. Cool and blot gauze tampons, which are placed on the damaged areas of the body.
- Compress of raw potatoes and cucumber – for 2 raw potatoes take 1 cucumber and grind everything in a blender to a state of mashed potatoes. Apply on the skin with a thick layer, pre-cooled in the freezer.
- Mask of sour cream – chilled sour cream is applied with a thick layer on the skin, not allowing it to dry completely. After 30-40 minutes, rinse with cool water.
- Egg white – chilled chicken egg white is whipped into a foam, and then applied to the skin for 15-20 minutes. Protein mask helps to nourish and moisturize the skin.
- Compress of interior fat and carrots – carrots are crushed to a state of mashed potatoes, add 3 tablespoons of melted interior fat and lay in ice molds. Cool in the refrigerator and lubricate the damaged skin.
In the presence of blisters, poor health and high temperature, first aid for sunburn should be carried out in a hospital setting.
First aid for sunburn in children
Help with sunburn in children is no different from the method of its provision in adults. The skin should be cooled, then moistened. Special children’s sprays for burns are suitable, as well as oils.
It is important for children to give plenty of drink and control the general condition. If blisters, urticaria and other unpleasant symptoms appear, you should consult with a specialist.
What not to do with sunburn?
First aid for heat and sunburn should be carried out correctly. The further well-being of a person depends on it. Absolutely forbidden:
- Use cosmetics containing alcohol, because it contributes to the additional drying of the skin.
- Take a hot shower, as jets of water under pressure can additionally injure the skin.
- Use scrubs, hard washcloth and tight clothing, which will increase irritation.
- Go out in the sun after the first noticeable improvements in the state.
- Interrupt treatment at the first signs of recovery.
- Applying ice to the damaged surface, as it provokes a spasm of blood vessels, which will only aggravate the situation.
- Take alcoholic beverages.
First aid for sunburn should begin immediately, as was noticed reddening of the skin. The sooner measures are taken, the greater the chances for a speedy recovery and reducing the risk of adverse reactions.
In the event that blisters appear immediately, they should not be pierced in any way, as bacteria from the environment can penetrate into the wound, causing the development of the inflammatory process.
In the presence of frequent skin burns, complications such as can develop:
- Photodermatosis – the development of skin pathologies, triggered by sunlight. It does not allow a person to go out into the open sun and live a full life.
- Reduced elasticity of the skin – develops with its frequent drying.
- Long non-healing wounds are the result of metabolic disturbances in the skin.
The most dangerous complication of sunburn is the risk of developing melanoma. Skin cancer develops under the influence of excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays.
The appearance of freckles, nevi and birthmarks reduces the attractiveness of the skin, especially in women. Frequent skin burns, if desired, to have a bronze tan, can cause an early appearance of deep wrinkles.
In order that first aid for sunburn is not required, it is important to follow some rules:
- Exclude being in the open sun from 10 to 16 hours, which is the most dangerous time, contributing to the occurrence of burns.
- Use sunscreen and other cosmetics to prevent skin drying.
- Refuse to go out into the open sun when using drugs that intensify the tanning process.
In the event that work is associated with prolonged exposure to the sun, you must have a hat, sunglasses and clothing made from natural fabrics, which completely covers the body.
Sunburn is easier to prevent than to cure. If it was not possible to avoid the harmful effects of the sun, then you should know how and with what help to eliminate pain, itching and swelling. It is best to use aerosols, which include dexpanetnol.