First aid is: immediate medical care and treatment for victims before qualified medical care arrives. Most often, first aid involves maintaining the life of the victim until outside help arrives.
First aid in camping and in extreme conditions, immediate medical assistance in various cases.
When there is a need for first aid, you must adhere to the following rules.
- Change wet clothes
- Giving hot drink and food
- To insulate
- You can sit around the victim, or lie down to him in a sleeping bag
How to protect yourself from hypothermia?
- Rest and get enough sleep
- Carry a stock of chocolate, sugar, condensed milk, sweets
- Drink and eat hot food throughout the day
- Always take warm clothes with you
- Warn others about your driving routes, if anything, they will start looking for you.
- High temperature effects on both skin and respiratory tract through smoke
- Solar radiation
- Chemical exposure
Signs of a burn :
- The appearance of bubbles on the skin
- The skin becomes whitish, tan or black
- Skin sensitivity disappears
1. Take the victim out of the affected area. If clothing burns, extinguish it.
2. Quickly cool the affected area with cold water, cool for 15-30 minutes, cool the chemical burn with running water
3. To remove clothes, and it is better to cut, if there are areas where the clothes are stuck to the skin, cut it off at the edges and leave
4. Give pain medication
5. Make a dressing, but not tight, just so that no dirt gets
6. Immobilize damaged surface
7. Give plenty of sweet tea or salted water
8. Deliver to the hospital
- It is undesirable to pierce the bubbles
- Do not tear off sticky clothes
- Do not lubricate affected skin
1. Flush eyes with plenty of water
2. Apply a bandage
3. Transport to the hospital, first-aid post
Use in classes where there is the possibility of eye damage, glasses
- A tear
- Voice blushes
- The eyelids swell and blush
1. To instill in the eye the composition of sodium sulfacyl (albucid)
2. Apply a clean dressing
3. Give pain medication
4. In case of visual impairment, transport to the hospital
- Nasal Blood on Strokes
- Or the appearance of blood in itself for no apparent reason
1. Plant the victim
2. Head tilt forward
3. To squeeze the nostrils from the sides for 10 minutes
4. After stopping the bleeding, do not remove blood clots, do not do heavy physical exertion
- Seek medical attention if bleeding does not stop within 15 minutes
- Before going to the doctor, insert tampons in your nose
- Consult a doctor if nosebleeds are repeated several times or if blood begins to drain down the back of the throat
Bites insects (wasps, spiders, hornets, scorpions, etc.)
1. Pull out the sting
2. Put something cold, or a napkin dipped in vinegar
3. If the bite is accompanied by severe pain, give painkiller
4. Lubricate with anti-inflammatory ointment
5. Bite the face, neck, and mouth quickly with an injection of Dexamethasone or Prednisone or Hydrocortisone. Transport the patient to the hospital
Very dangerous bites in the neck, face, mouth, tongue, a tumor occurs that blocks the airways and a person can suffocate.
- If you don’t touch the snake, it will not attack first, but if you touch it, it will defend itself
- If you don’t look under your feet while moving and resting
- Do not put your hand in burrows, bushes, under stones, unless you see what’s there
Bite symptoms :
- Wound pain
- Minor swelling in the bite area
- Bitten limb tumor
- Abdominal pain
- Shortness of breath
1. Deliver to the hospital
2. If the hospital is far, then lay the patient and not allow him to get up, walk, sit
3. Make parking
4. Let’s drink to the patient
5. Try any means of help, give a signal of trouble
- Observe the patient for 2 hours, if there are no symptoms of poisoning, then the bite was not poisonous
- Perform the same actions with the bite site as with the wound.
- If the bite was on the neck, face, mouth, then give an injection: Dexamethasone, Prednisolone, Hydrocortisone
- Swimming in unfamiliar waters
- Diving in unfamiliar places
- Thin Ice Skating
1. Check for heart rate
2. Remove dirt and sand from the mouth and nose.
3. Proceed with artificial respiration.
4. When water appears in the mouth, put it on the stomach, then lift and shake it with both hands so that water spills from the stomach and respiratory tract
5. The main artificial respiration and heart massage
6. If you can call an ambulance
Drowned even when quickly removed from the water in appearance resembles a dead man. When saving a drowning man, there is no time to lose.
Signs of Clinical Death :
- Lack of pulse
- Loss of consciousness
- Lack of independent respiratory movements
- Wide pupils
1. Check heart rate, breathing, pupils
2. Put the victim on his back (hard surface)
3. Unfasten clothes
4. Clean your mouth and nose
5. Throw your head back.
6. Open your mouth
7. Start artificial respiration and heart massage.
8. If possible, call an ambulance
Recommendations for first aid in camping and extreme situations.
The essence of artificial respiration is the artificial introduction of air into the lungs. It is produced in all cases of respiratory arrest, as well as in the presence of improper breathing. The main condition for successful artificial respiration is clear airway and fresh air..
Cardiac arrest occurs during a direct stroke in the heart region, during drowning, asphyxiation, gas poisoning, electric shock, inhibition of the circulatory control center located in the medulla oblongata, with some heart diseases, mainly with myocardial infarction, with insufficient prolonged breathing . Cardiac arrest also occurs with heat stroke, blood loss, burns and freezing..
In connection with cardiac arrest, the circulation stops, resulting in clinical death. In this case, the only way to save the victim’s life is a heart massage. When cardiac arrest is necessary to cause its contraction and stretching artificially. Heart massage is an effective measure of revitalization when combined with artificial respiration; artificial respiration is necessary, because when a person has a cardiac arrest, respiratory activity also stops.
If only one person revives the injured person, then he is obliged to do both heart massage and artificial respiration. At 15 pressures of the chest, 3 artificial breaths are made. Heart massage is a measure that requires great care, therefore it is resorted to only in cases of emergency.