This article will not describe in detail the methods of first aid. First aid is detailed in textbooks, books, memos, which are not difficult to find in any library or network. Only a chronically lazy person can manage not to find the required information in the sea of endlessly distributed popular medical literature.
First aid in terms of survival in an emergency in a sparsely populated area.
I will not paint elementary medical truths, but I will insist on the assimilation of these truths not with my head, but with my hands. A person must be able, and not only in extreme conditions, to stop bleeding, apply tires to broken arms and legs, do indirect heart massage and artificial respiration.
Prevention of injuries, injuries and diseases in an emergency.
What does the term “prevention” include in relation to accident conditions? First of all, compliance with safety precautions when moving, working in a camp, handling firearms and cold steel. It is better to be a reinsurer. Because a serious fracture, wound or injury in the field cannot be cured. Compliance with two elementary rules will protect against food poisoning – do not consume dubious and unfamiliar food, boil water. From non-food – maximum caution in the habitats of poisonous animals and insects. Cold and heat damage can be avoided by observing the rules of conduct in extreme climatic conditions..
In emergency conditions, reinsurers, as a rule, live longer reckless heroes. It is necessary to be afraid of snakes, karakurt, ticks and rabies-infected animals, to be careful to overcome rocky ledges. In short – do not get into the water without knowing the ford. Because such reinsurance in the absence of qualified medical care can be recognized as medical prevention. For the same purpose, one must strive to observe personal hygiene. At the first opportunity, wash your face, armpits, crotch, and toes with a wet cloth or at least wipe it. In the absence of a rag, it is permissible to use soft leaves of plants.
In the desert, such a “bath” can be done using sand. Washing reduces the risk of scuffs, calluses, boils and colds, which in an accident can be fraught with the most unpredictable consequences. Clothing (and especially underwear) must be washed periodically. If parasites are found in them – fleas, lice, etc. – boil. If it is impossible to wash clothes, shake them once a day, dry and ventilate in the wind and the sun. Among other things, clean clothing warms better and lasts longer.
Preventive measures include maintaining oneself in a normal psychological state, in the mood for health. A person is able to prevent and even cure many diseases with the help of self-hypnosis and psychoregulation alone, which are many positive examples. In extreme conditions, those who are ready for this are always the first to fall ill..
First aid in emergency and emergency situations.
The main rule of providing medical care in an accident, as, incidentally, in normal life – do no harm! Improper medical care often leads to worse consequences for the victim than complete inaction. Without understanding what is happening to the person, without identifying the disease, treatment cannot be started. The exception is only severe bleeding, fractures, etc. deadly conditions. In this case, medical assistance is provided immediately, since every minute of delay can cost a person life.
Ways to provide medical care for injuries, fractures, bleeding, cardiac arrest and other things should be studied in advance and fixed with the help of practical exercises. As experience shows, a pure theory, not supported by practice, is ineffective. But in this case, one must act calmly, without fuss and haste, following the instructions of the most experienced and competent comrades. At the initial stage of the development of the accident, it is necessary for the participants in the group to find out the chronic diseases that they suffer from, the diseases to which they are predisposed, and the most effective methods of treatment tested before.
This will eliminate the element of surprise when seizures occur, allow you to prepare for treatment in advance, and reduce the consumption of drugs. For the same purpose, it is necessary to find out in advance from the group members the individual tolerance of certain drugs. Any examination and medical assistance to the patient begins with a survey in order to identify the place and nature of the pain, general well-being, etc. Then conduct a surface examination, where to pay attention to the color and appearance of the skin, gait and posture of the patient, which can be modified as a result of pain sensations, body temperature, sweating, condition of the mucous membranes of the mouth, tongue, etc..
If necessary, during the examination, you can apply feeling, tapping, listening and other methods of simple diagnosis. True, they are available only to experienced professionals. Diagnosing in emergency conditions in the absence of a certified doctor is an extremely problematic matter. But sometimes necessary. It is easiest to use “analog diagnostics” in such an extraordinary case. Each of us in his life suffered from more than one disease and received a general idea of them, as they say, first-hand. Plus illnesses of relatives. Plus popular TV shows and brochures.
I understand that such fragmentary, unsystematic and not fixed by practice knowledge cannot serve as a basis for medical practice. In normal conditions. But not in emergency situations, when a patient without help can die. Therefore, if you suspect a particular illness, you need to summarize the medical knowledge of all members of the group regarding this particular disease. That is: what hurt, how hurt, where it was given, what kind of manipulations the doctor performed during an in-depth study, etc..
The more additional information – the more chances to make a correct diagnosis! The same technique can be guided by the appointment of drug treatment. Recall and tell you what medicines the doctor prescribed for you with a similar disease, in what quantity, as recommended, before or after eating, and so on. Any medicines whose purpose is doubtful, tablets in bulk and in packaging with erased inscriptions, etc., should not be taken. In all cases, so that an overdose that is not harmful to the body does not occur, after taking the medicine inside, it is necessary to take at least a half-hour break before giving the second dose, even if it seems that the first has had absolutely no effect. It must be remembered that the medicine does not work immediately.
In an emergency, it is extremely important to constantly monitor your condition (self-monitoring). It is absolutely unacceptable to hide from the head of the group or comrades their pain, the injuries received. False heroism, invigoration aggravates the position of the victim and, therefore, the entire group and can lead to the most tragic results. If there is a seriously ill patient in the group, it is necessary to arrange for him constant care and supervision, for which purpose appoint one or more duty attendants. It is advisable to minimize the patient’s contact with other members of the group, since monitoring the development of the disease, especially in its severe phases, provokes decadent moods in people. At the slightest suspicion of an infectious disease, all measures should be taken to protect people providing assistance..
Patients should be provided with a “most favored nation treatment” regime by providing the most complete nutrition, the most comfortable and warmest places during the night, freeing them from work and carrying cargo. It is unacceptable for the patient to talk about his condition and the position of the group, to discuss his alleged actions, to show confusion, uncertainty, especially discontent, irritation. It must be remembered that the patient is treated not only with medication, but also with the confident look of the carer, the favorable moral atmosphere around.
The victim cannot be reproached, even if an injury or illness is provoked by his own indiscipline. It is necessary to be able to suppress the feeling of disgust in itself when providing emergency care and caring for the patient (when cleaning the oral cavity of vomit, artificial respiration from mouth to mouth, help with mandrel, etc.). With some of the most serious diseases and injuries, victims may experience clinical death. Signs of clinical death are: lack of breathing or convulsive intermittent respiratory movements, lack of a heartbeat, pulse, insensitivity to pain, such as needle pricks, sharp icing of the skin, dilated pupils. Very often people who do not have medical experience take clinical death as true and cease to provide assistance to the victim, condemning him to death.
Some simple tricks that allow you to establish in the field that a person is alive.
– If the victim, though very weakly, is breathing, then the mirror brought to his lips fogs up.
– A hot object close to the skin, go match fire, lighters cause a burn.
– The finger stretched at the base swells, which indicates preserved blood circulation.
– The beam of a flashlight directed into open eyes or the light of a burning match causes the pupil to narrow, removing the light source – expansion.
– When you lightly touch a finger to the eyeball, the eyelids twitch.
It should be remembered that the period of clinical death, lasting 3-7 minutes, is reversible, and a person can be brought back to life using active methods of revitalization. First of all, artificial respiration and heart massage. Until there is full confidence in the death of the victim, medical care should be provided in full, without interrupting artificial respiration and heart massage for more than 1 minute.
Obvious signs of biological, irreversible death.
Clouding and drying of the cornea.
When squeezing the eyeball from the sides with the fingers, the pupil narrows and resembles a cat’s eye.
2-4 hours after death, blurred outlines of purple-cyanotic cadaveric spots appear due to blood draining into the lower parts of the body (when standing on the back, spots are observed on the lower back, shoulder blades, buttocks, and on the stomach – on the face, chest, front of the limbs).
Muscular rigor, in which there is resistance to movement of the lower jaw and limbs of the victim.
Based on materials from the School of Survival in Natural Conditions.