Fire is the most terrible enemy of the forest and dry vegetation of the steppes and savannahs. Forest fires are distinguished, distinguished by types of ground (ground), horse (general), underground or peat.
Forest, steppe and peat fires, human behavior in case of fire, damaging factors of fires, the most fire hazardous types of forests.
Ground fires occur more often than others, because with them burning occurs on the soil. Ground fires are quick and steady. When fluent, grass, forest litter, seedlings, undergrowth and undergrowth burn down, the lower parts of the trunks burn. In case of a sustained low-level fire, the fire destroys the living subsoil, berries, forest litter, burns through the soil, damages trees to a considerable height.
. In a fire, brushwood, deadwood, deadwood light up, juniper bushes, young Christmas trees and pines flare up, a huge number of sparks fly from them and the fire quickly spreads to the lowered branches of stunted spruce trees and can rise to the very tops of trees.
Thus begins the horse (general) fire, the most terrible and difficult to extinguish, covering vast territories and spreading at a speed of up to 50 km / h. Horse fires most often occur in dry summers in windy and dry weather. The fire spreads to the crowns of the trees, and burning bunts and sparks are carried by a hurricane for several kilometers, creating a fire front ahead.
Sometimes a fiery tornado forms over a burning forest. The temperature reaches 900 degrees. When the fire moves, a rather strong noise arises from cracking and falling trees. Most often, mounted fires occur in coniferous and less commonly in mixed forests, even less often in deciduous.
Fires can also occur from spontaneous combustion of peat. Underground (peat) fires occur in forests with powerful peat soils. Peat burns to the depth of the dried layer. Pungent and suffocating smoke and the smell of burning peat spreads a considerable distance. Such a fire is hard to notice, as peat smolders.
The smoldering temperature reaches 500 degrees, the flame does not appear outside, but spreads under a layer of moss, and if you inadvertently stand on such a deceptive moss cover, you can fall into the fire and die. Together with peat, the roots of the trees burn, and the trees bend in different directions, fall in disarray, forming impenetrable blockages. Sometimes peat fires do not stop even in winter. Caustic smoke, the smell of burning peat, fire that erupted in some places to the surface, failures in the soil are signs of an underground fire.
The most fire hazardous forest types.
Lichen pine forests.
They often occupy elevated parts of the relief of the mane, located along the banks of rivers and lakes, along the bay, or elevated areas of the forest. They most often cause fires in relation to other types of forests, which is facilitated by dry undecomposed litter and the dryness of the soil cover, and the speed of its drying after rain. A fire in such a forest can also occur at low air temperature and high relative humidity (even about 90%). In forests of this type, bottom runaway fires predominate, but downstream steady fires are also possible..
Light up in dry weather in spring and autumn, when dried grass is easily ignited.
In them, fires occur less frequently than in pine trees, but if they occur, they quickly contribute to the transition of a lower fire to a high fire.
The damaging factors of forest and peat fire.
The main damaging factors are fire, high ambient temperature, lack of oxygen, combustion products, tree fragments. In addition, the peat layer burning underground, where you can fall through and die, at best, get very severe burns, is a great danger. When leaving the fire zone and when in its zone, both psychological and pain shock may occur.
Human behavior in case of fire.
Having discovered a fire, you must try to quickly extinguish it, because if you do not, the fire will catch up with you anyway. Extinguishing a forest fire at the very beginning of its occurrence is not difficult. The easiest and most affordable way to stop the fire is overwhelming its edges with green branches or young trees, better conifers. To do this, they beat along the burning edge with sharp sliding strokes, knocking down the flame and sweeping the coals onto the burned-out area. This method is effective in extinguishing weak ground fires, as they spread at a speed of 0.5 to 1 km / h.
You can throw the edge of the fire with soil. In this way, moderate fires are extinguished on light sandy soils. A small fire can be trampled underfoot. The most effective means of water, if it is nearby and there is something to bring it. The most important thing is to notice a fire in time or to smell the burning, and especially to determine the direction of movement of the fire, linking it with the direction of the wind and its strength. A sign of the proximity of the forest, and not only forest fire, is the stampede of animals. In this case, you need to be careful and attentive so that this avalanche does not crush you.
But at the same time, running animals will show you the path to salvation, as their instinct leads to water and always in the direction opposite not only to the main source of ignition, but also to those arising in front of it, due to the airborne transport of sparks, the advanced front of the fire. It should be noted that fires, as a rule, will not stop small water barriers. The rapid spread of fire even in calm weather is facilitated by forest fire on mountain slopes. When falling, the illuminated trees roll down and drag the flaming logs, hot stones behind them and thus contribute to the spread of fire far down the slope.
And the steeper the slope, the faster it happens. Hot air, burning through the lungs, stupefying smoke goes far ahead of the fire itself and this is perhaps the most dangerous. Therefore, when you feel the approach of a riding fire, you must immediately leave with all the haste possible for you. All of the above applies to fires in the steppe. Fire in dry tall grass spreads even faster than in the forest. When approaching hot air and acrid carbon monoxide smoke, cover your nose and mouth with a handkerchief or piece of cloth.
But in general, the ability to escape from the fire element depends only on the early detection of a fire, the speed and direction of its movement and the speed of your movement. It should be borne in mind that only a very strong and prolonged rain can extinguish a fire and slow down its progress. A serious natural obstacle: a wide river, treeless and grassless space (bare ground, grass-roots, rocks), and only a change in the direction of a strong wind can turn the fire to the other side.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.