All shells used for firing from a smoothbore hunting weapon can be divided into two main types: dissected and solid. The first type includes shot and buckshot, the second – bullets of various designs.
Fraction and buckshot for firing from hunting smooth-bore weapons, soft and hard shots, sizes and diameter of the shot, differences between shots and shots.
Fraction is a component of a dissected projectile with a size of not more than 5 mm. In the vast majority of cases, the fraction has a spherical shape and is made of alloys, the basis of which is lead. However, a fraction of a different shape (cubic, disk-shaped) or made of other materials (polyethylene, steel, cast iron) is rarely used..
Used in the past, for lack of the best, chopped nails are essentially also fractions or buckshots. Hardness distinguishes between soft and hard fractions. The hardness of the fraction depends on the amount of impurities to lead (antimony, lead-arsenic alloy, arsenic anhydride). In soft fractions, impurities account for less than 1.5%, in hard fractions, more than.
Hard shot is slightly lighter than soft, less deformed when moving in the barrel, and therefore has a high flight speed, accuracy and lethality. To reduce lead channel and prevent lead poisoning of animals, hard shots are often often coated with a thin layer of copper, nickel or chromium. Such a fraction is called clad. It deforms even less and gives even better performance when fired..
Hardness of a soft fraction is 3 kgf / mm2, hard – about 10 kgf / mm2. At present, shots of 16 sizes are produced: from No. 11 to No. 1, and then 0, 00, 000, 0000. Fraction No. 7 1/2 is widely used in many countries when shooting at the booth. Until recently, the USSR produced fraction No. 12 (diameter 1.25 mm), but now its production has been discontinued. Each fraction number differs from the neighboring ones in diameter by 0.25 mm. In the literature, the name “snipe” is often found. It refers to the smallest fraction numbers – 10-12.
Diameter of a fraction of different numbers, mm.
Equipping cartridges with a shot requires serious attention to its quality, since it has a noticeable effect on the scree of a shot shell. The grains should have a regular spherical shape and more or less the same diameter.
The more individual grains approach the ideal shape of the ball and the less they are deformed while passing through the barrel channel when shot, the better the shot. More uniform pellets give a smaller stretch of a sheaf of shot when fired.
Buckshot, diameter, matching buckshot in cartridges of different calibers.
Shotgun differs from a fraction only in size. The diameter of the buckshot is more than 5 mm. The content of impurities for lead in buckshot does not exceed 1.5%, that is, it is only mild. The diameter of the buckshot should be as follows: 5.25; 5.60; 5.70; 5.80; 6.20; 6.50; 6.80; 6.95; 7.15; 7.55; 7.70; 8.00; 8.50; 9.65; 10.00. This is quite different from the 6 shotguns used in the past: I – 10 mm, II – 9 mm, III – 8 mm, IV – 7 mm, V – 6.5 mm, VI – 6 mm, but allows better coordination of the shotgun in cartridges of different calibers.
Coordinated shotgun is called, the diameter of which is selected so that when laying one layer in the muzzle of the trunk there are no gaps between the shots and the bore. When using, the diameter of the buckshot should not exceed half the diameter of the bore, that is, 10-mm buckshot can only be used in guns of the 10th caliber and the like.
This condition can be violated only with the use of additional devices that exclude the wedging effect when fired from a hunting rifle. For example, use of special containers.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Rudenko F.A., Semashko V.Yu., Cherenkov S.E., Matyunin M.M..