The best fuel for a fire is dry twigs of living trees or trees split by lightning. Although fine dry brushwood is kindled and gives a strong flame, it quickly burns out. It requires a lot, so it is suitable only for kindling.
Fuel for a fire, drying and saving firewood, other types of fuel for a fire in conditions of survival.
Use firewood from dead wood as the main fuel for the fire. When the fire has flared up, it is possible to add freshly chopped wood or dry wet wood. As a general rule, the heavier the wood, the more heat it emits, this applies to both dead wood and raw wood. Mixed dry and raw firewood burns for a long time, which is especially useful at night..
, cedar, spruce also burn well, but scatter a lot of sparks, give a lot of smoke and soot. Such firewood should be used for burning coal, on which even raw chunks of birch, alder and aspen are well burned and burned, but they give a small flame and are suitable only for cooking food on such a fire.
Hardwood, such as beech or dub, burn well, give a lot of heat and smolder for a long time in the form of hot coals. They will provide a bonfire all night. Soft conifers tend to burn quickly and give sparks. The largest number of sparks is produced by cedar, alder, spruce, pine, chestnut and willow. Large, untouched deadwood, oak, birch is an excellent fuel for a bonfire, which gives strong heat and a small amount of smoke. Such a fire is good for the hearth. Dead birch, standing on the root, rots inside the impermeable cylinder of birch bark, only its branches are suitable.
The branches lying on the ground are suitable for a fire only in dry weather, and only those that lie in dry places. Tree trunks lying on the ground in damp places are completely unsuitable for a fire, as are dead trees standing on wet places near rivers, swamps and lakes. The inner part of the trunks of fallen trees, resinous stumps of conifers are very often dry inside, even if outside they are very wet. Freshly cut trees burn well only finely chopped. Raw firewood burns better in winter than in summer.
Fir, spruce and chestnut scatter small coals when burning. Aspen, larch, mountain ash, bird cherry give little heat. In no case should you put fresh needles in the fire. It gives a lot of black smoke, so such a bonfire is suitable only as a signal. Dry needles give a lot of sparks. When collecting fuel for a bonfire, it is necessary to take into account that the pine burns quickly and the cedar burns unevenly. Thick pieces of bark of coniferous trees, so that they burn well, you need to lay across the logs, and not along.
Dry the wood on the crossbars above the fire, but not so low that they catch fire. Place raw logs or logs at an angle to each other near the fire so that they diverge in the direction from which the wind blows, this will help to fan the weak fire of the fire and at the same time dry the raw firewood. Put the wood for drying on the crossbar for the pot. Make a canopy for firewood, this is important in wet weather. Arrange it near the hearth so that the heat of the fire helps to dry the wood, but not so close that the sparks could set fire to the wood and canopy. Make two tiers and use firewood from one of them while the other party dries.
Fuel saving for a bonfire.
Do not waste your energy on cutting logs from logs, break them with blows on a stone. If this does not work, put them over the fire so that they burn out in the middle, or if they are not very long, put them on the fire at one end. To save fuel, it is absolutely necessary to chop wood, but an ax is optional. Even a small knife can split a log if you put it with a cutting edge on a log and hit the knife’s butt with a stone. Starting this process, insert a wooden wedge into the crack that has formed and hammer it in order to split the log.
But if you have only one knife, then you should not risk it, this method can damage or break it. Logs or logs are laid in the combustion zone by shifting forward along their length. When a large flame is not required, they are moved away from each other, so that hot smoldering coals and ashes for cooking remain in the center. To rekindle the flame, move them and it will soon catch fire. This method is mainly used to save fuel, but also eliminates the need for logging. Fuel should be spent sparingly and not to make large and extra bonfires.
Other bonfire fuels.
In deserts and semi-deserts there are many different thorny bushes and other vegetation, which is collected and used as fuel. Saxaul burns perfectly, which breaks perfectly with your hands even with a large thickness, but completely burns out, completely giving no coal, however, emitting huge heat. Beyond the Arctic Circle, among the undersized shrubs, you can also find dry branches and roots suitable for a bonfire. Also used is fin, often found in estuaries and along coasts..
Where there is little or no wood at all, other types of fuel must be found. Animal litter is an excellent fuel. Migrants from the Wild West used bison cow cakes for their bonfires. Well-dried droppings produce flames without smoke. It can be mixed with grass, moss and leaves. Peat is often found in drained swamps. It gently springs underfoot and can be located on the outcrops of a rocky city; it has a black or dark and porous appearance. Easy to cut with a knife.
To burn peat, you need a good flow of air. If the peat is folded with air gaps, it dries quickly and soon becomes ready for burning. Coal is sometimes found on the surface; there are large deposits in the northern tundra. Shales are often rich in oil and easily ignite. Some sands also contain oil, they burn with thick oil smoke and a good signal fire is produced, and also a lot of heat is released.
Petroleum products as fuel for a fire.
If there is a mechanical breakdown in your vehicle or during the accident fuel from petroleum products is preserved, you can burn oil, fuel oil, antifreeze, hydraulic fluid and other flammable liquids. Even insect repellent liquid can burn. Antifreeze is a good way to fuel engine oils. With a small amount of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) it can easily be set on fire in a few seconds.
In extreme cold, drain the oil from the crankcase before it hardens. If there is no suitable container, drain it to the ground to use later in the hardened form. Tires, upholstery, rubber gaskets and much more from the debris or objects left after any accident can be used as combustible materials. Soak or immerse them in oil or oil before igniting poorly burning materials..
Mix the car fuel with sand and burn it in a container that acts as a hearth, or dig an appropriate hole. Kindle oil by mixing it with gasoline or antifreeze. Do not burn liquid fuel directly, but make a wick and use the flame with it. The same goes for insect repellents..
Animal fat as fuel for a fire.
Animal fat can also be used with a wick in a tin with good ventilation as a hotbed. If fat is used as a bonfire, then bones can be added to the mass, sometimes this is the only available fuel in the polar regions. Kindle the flame with a grinder or candle, then place bones on top to support fat. First use only a little fat. Fat burning is the burning of your body’s energy source, unless of course you have plenty of fat, although seal fat spoils quickly anyway, and it produces good fuel.