General requirements for shelters and shelters in extreme or emergency situations.

In an extreme situation, it is very important to find shelter for yourself or build it yourself to protect yourself from wind, cold and moisture. The basic requirements for shelters and shelters and the principles of their construction are described below, so that if necessary, build your own in the right place and from suitable materials. 

General requirements for shelters and shelters in extreme or emergency situations.

Each locality has its own specific types of shelters and shelters. However, there are several general principles related to shelters and shelters that you must definitely keep in mind in an extreme situation, regardless of the type of terrain where you find yourself.

If the weather took you by surprise, and if you are injured or exhausted, any natural shelter will do. For example, you can use a recess in the ground, if possible, erecting a wall of soil and stones around it.
General requirements for shelters and shelters in extreme or emergency situations.
Well, if you are in a zone of warm, dry climate, there the requirements for shelters and shelters are not so strict, but do not think that your shelter may be lightened or not needed at all. Know that even if you are warm during the day, then at night the temperature can drop significantly, moreover, in areas with a warm climate, as well as in cold climatic zones, the weather is subject to changes.

Shelter will protect you from unforeseen dangers or wildlife. For example, it is known that the snake attracts the warmth of the human body, they crawl into the sleeping bags of tourists who are sleeping for the night without shelter, and can settle in the genital area of ​​the sleeping person. Therefore, always remember that without shelter, you can not do.

Choosing a place for shelter or shelter.

Choosing the right shelter is crucial. If you choose the wrong place, the thing may end up being that you have to build a new shelter in another place, which you will spend extra time and energy.

It is not worth it to choose a place for refuge or shelter late in the evening, after a day’s transition, in other words, at the last minute. You are tired and will not be able to make the right, balanced choice of a place and will provide all the necessary requirements for shelters and shelters. As a result, the decision is likely to be wrong, in addition, you can use the wrong materials for the construction of a temporary dwelling.

The influence of weather conditions on the choice of a place for shelter.

Weather conditions are usually a determining factor in determining the location of your future shelter. For example, in cold climatic zones in the lowlands, it is usually a little colder at night, and besides, it is windy there. In the lowlands and valleys, regardless of the climate, it is generally always somewhat colder than in the hills, since cold air is heavier.

Therefore, while in a cold climate zone, try to build your shelter in the sun, if at all it is shown above the horizon, and use the maximum amount of heat-insulating material.

In desert conditions, shelters and shelters should be protected from both solar overheating (during the day) and overcooling (at night), while humidity will not be a problem for you.

Wind.

In a warm climate zone, build a shelter in such a way as to take advantage of a refreshing breeze, but be sure to protect the shelter from dust, dirt and debris that the wind can bring. In a cold climate zone, on the contrary, choose a place that is protected from the wind and the snow it brings..

Rain, drizzle and snow.

They can deliver a lot of trouble to shelters and shelters built in the wrong place. Do not build a shelter near places where rainwater streams and streams run, in areas prone to flooding, or where dirt accumulates, or in an avalanche hazardous area.

Insects.

Having flying and crawling insects around your camp can be a big problem. If you set up your camp in such a way that it is purged with a breeze, then get rid of the unpleasant neighborhood with flying bloodsucker insects. Do not camp near standing ponds; they attract mosquitoes, wasps, bees and hornets. Carefully make sure that there are no anthills around the camp, otherwise the ants will not give you rest.

Having chosen a parking place, look around the trees standing nearby. They may have nests of wasps or hornets. Also be wary of dry dead trees. They are a source of double danger, firstly, dry trees are fragile and can fall to your camp with a sudden strong gust of wind, and secondly, wild bees, wasps, ants, termites and other unpleasant neighbors can settle in rotten trees.

Types of shelters and shelters in extreme or emergency situations.

The type of shelter that is suitable for you is determined by the weather and climatic conditions in which you are located, as well as the availability of materials at hand for its construction. Remember that sometimes it’s very useful to build a temporary shelter in order to relax there, gain strength and build a more substantial dwelling, especially if night falls, it becomes cold and humid.

If it is not possible to find any materials suitable for building a shelter, use natural shelters, such as an overhanging cliff, or rock, or a depression in the ground.

In the open space for rest, sit with your back to the wind, put a backpack and equipment behind your back for additional protection from the cold. The following is a description of the natural shelters that a person can use in an emergency:

Trunks of fallen trees.

Or trees, broken at a certain distance from the ground, forming an acute angle with the ground. For added protection, pile on a log or trunk of fallen tree, spruce paws and foliage.

Natural recesses in the soil, clefts and pits.

They provide excellent protection from the wind, but when arranging a shelter in them, do not forget about the drainage groove that diverts rainwater from it. A roof can be built above the recess by laying on top of it several strong cross-pieces from. branches and covering them with smaller branches, spruce branches and foliage.

Trunks of fallen thick trees.

At the side of the trunk protected from wind, dig a recess, cover it with a roof from branches and spruce top.

Small boulders and stones.

To protect yourself from the wind, the gaps between the stones can be laid with clay, foliage mixed with mud, or peat.

Cave.

She can be a wonderful shelter. If you find it in a hillside, mountain or rock, you can improve its thermal insulation by building a wind shield at the entrance to it. For the construction of the wall, you can use boulders, stones and peat briquettes cut in the form of bricks.

If you decide to make a fire in a cave, remember that you need to choose a place for it in the depths of the cave, and not at the entrance, otherwise the smoke and cinder from the fire will pull inside the cave and you may suffocate.

Of course, infinitely many types of shelters can be built from improvised materials in the wild. You just have to strain your imagination. But when building any of them, do not forget the principles set forth below..

List of requirements for shelter in extreme conditions:

    • Cold protection.
    • Wind protection.
    • Insect protection.
    • Snow protection.
    • Moisture protection.
    • Solar Overheat Protection.

    Where it is not recommended to build a shelter:

    • On a hilltop open to the wind it will be constantly cold and windy.
    • In a deep lowland, ravine or at the bottom of the valley, it is humid in summer and cold in winter.
    • On the hillsides where there are underground voids there is always damp.
    • Near ravines and ravines leading to water there, as a rule, animal paths run to the watering hole..
    • Near trees with hornet’s nests, as well as near dry trees, the latter can collapse with an increase or sudden gust of wind.
    • Under a lonely tree in a thunderstorm, it can attract lightning.

    Note:

    Keep your shelter dry, dig a drainage groove around it. Provide temporary ventilation with good ventilation, especially if you plan to light a fire there and cook.

    Emergency Survival Tutorial
    Peter Darman.

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