Juices are obtained by pressing fresh healthy fruits and berries. Extracting juice consists of two operations: grinding and extracting juice from the pulp. When pressed or pressed together with the juice, valuable soluble substances are extracted from the fruits – sugar, acids, mineral salts and vitamins, as well as coloring and aromatic substances. The yield of juice depends on the degree of grinding (crushing) of fruits and berries.
Getting juice from fruits and berries, processing pulp for making homemade wine.
Apples and pears are chopped into pieces of 3-4 mm. Cherry, plum and apricot (pitted) are crushed into pieces of 5-6 mm. The berries are kneading with hands or a pusher in a bucket or wooden tub. Completely ripe berries can not be chopped. Too small crushing of the fruits is not allowed, since the juice from the puree mass will not separate well and its yield will be less than when chopping the fruit with pieces.
press. The pulp is placed in a bag specially made of durable rare fabric (canvas), the diameter of which should correspond to the inner diameter of the press basket. A round press lid or wooden lattice made of rectangular or square blocks of solid wood (oak, beech, birch) is placed on a bag with a pulp..
A bent circle consisting of two halves is laid on top of the grill, and wooden bars are placed on it, against which a steel press plate presses. Gradually, using a screw, they create a slight pressure – the juice begins to stand out and drain into the substituted pan. As soon as it stops flowing out, the pressure must be slightly increased. When the juice is finally stopped, the dry pulp is removed from the press, mixed well and re-loaded under the press in the same bag.
The second pressing is carried out in the same way as the first. The juice obtained after the second pressing is mixed with the juice of the first pressing. If there is no screw or lever press, you can squeeze the juice in another way. 4-6 kg of fruit pulp is placed in a canvas bag and tied. Then the bag with the pulp is placed on a clean wide board, on the surface of which several longitudinal grooves are made.
The board is installed in an inclined position, and under the grooves put dishes for collecting juice. A wooden circle is placed on top of the bag with the pulp, and on it is a load that is gradually increased to achieve the most complete extraction of the juice.
Processing pulp for making homemade wine.
The method of processing pulp for making wine depends on the consistency of the juice. In the pulp of such fruits, in which the juice consistency is liquid (cherry, white and red currant), immediately after crushing the berries, add water in an amount of 200-300 ml per 1 kg of pulp. The pulp is mixed with water and immediately pressed to extract the juice. The amount of water introduced into the pulp is recorded.
From cherries, gooseberries, black currants, lingonberries, plums, cherry plums, you can get a greater yield of juice by heat treatment of the pulp or by insisting it with pre-fermentation. To do this, after grinding, the pulp is placed in an enameled pan, poured with water (10-12% of the pulp mass), heated for 30 minutes to 70-72 degrees, stirring continuously, then the dishes are removed from the heat and covered with something warm. Stand for 30 minutes, then cool and compress..
Heat treatment of the pulp of gooseberries, black currants, mountain ash, plums, it is better to replace by fermenting it at room temperature (20-22 degrees) for 2-3 days. For fermentation, pure cultured yeast or yeast diluted in water or 200–300 g per 10 kg of pulp must be added to the pulp, be sure to mix the whole mass 3-4 times a day to prevent acetic fermentation by the sublayer of the floated pulp.
After 2-3 days exposure, when the pulp begins to ferment violently, it is squeezed. Wine prepared on a fermented pulp is much more aromatic, intensely colored and more extractive than the original wort. The pulp of rowan is pressed before pressing with water for 24 hours at a temperature of 10-12 degrees. Dried mountain ash insist 3-4 days. For dry rowan water, you need to take 3 times more than for fresh.
Juice fractions obtained by pressing fruits and berries.
If the pressing was carried out napress in several stages, then the resulting juice of all fractions will be different. Initially, gravity juice flows out from under the press without pressure, after pressing – the juice of the first pressing, then the pulp is removed, a little water is added to it, mixed, squeezed again and the juice of the second pressing is obtained. Second pressing juice contains less sugar and acids, but it contains a lot of aromatic substances.
For the preparation of wine, you should use a mixture of juices of all fractions. Juice with press water is already called “must”. The juice obtained after pressing contains pectin substances, pieces of pulp and seeds, various impurities. Juice should be filtered through a sieve with small holes and clarified by settling for 2-3 hours. After settling, the juice is carefully siphoned off the sediment and used to make wort.
Based on materials from the book Making wine, moonshine, liquors and tinctures. Preparation technology, equipment, formulation, storage and use.
Team of Authors.