Girolopukompas is a navigation device designed to withstand the direction of movement. It consists of a gyromotor, a gimbal, a corrective device and an arrestor. On the outer frame of the gimbal, a graduated scale is fixed in the divisions of the angle meter. The division price is 0-20. The scale is closed by glass mounted on the instrument body. There is a pointer on the glass (index).
Girokolopompas, device, initial orientation by reference point, magnetic azimuth, directional angle, line of terrain, maintaining the route with a gyro-compass.
The main element of the gyroscope is the gyroscope. Its main axis, along with the scale of the device, maintains a constant direction relative to the sides of the horizon. The pointer, on which the reading on the scale is fixed, is rigidly connected with the machine. When turning the machine, the reading on the scale changes to the corresponding angle.
Maintaining the direction of movement along the gyro-feed is carried out by observing the position of the scale relative to the index. When the machine is moving in a straight line, the reading on the scale is saved. A change in countdown indicates that the machine has deviated from a given direction. To restore the previous direction of movement, the machine must be turned so that the previous countdown is established against the index.
Driving a car in a gyrocompass is most often carried out when crossing rivers under water, during night actions, in fog, snowstorm and in other cases of limited visibility. Giropolukompas appropriate also when maintaining the route on the terrain, poor landmarks or has undergone significant changes. When the orientation on the map by visual comparison with the terrain is difficult.
Gyroplompukas turn on and off only in a stationary machine in a certain sequence. First you need to make sure that the gyrohead is locked (the locking arm must be in a position away from you), and check the voltage of the on-board network. It must be at least 24 V. Then set the power switch of the device to the ON position.
After 5 minutes from the moment you turn on the grip of the arrestor by smoothly turning the handle, set the required angle on the scale and rake the gyro-feed by pulling the handle towards you until it clicks. The procedure for turning off the gyro Take the device by moving the handle to your position, and then turn off the power.
Initial orientation of the machine when using the gyro.
The initial orientation of the machine is to determine the direction of the longitudinal axis of the machine and set the gyro scale to the appropriate reference. It can be carried out according to a landmark, along a magnetic azimuth or a directional angle, and along a line of terrain..
Determining the direction of the longitudinal axis of the machine by reference.
The machine is installed at the starting point so that the landmark indicated (selected) in the direction of movement is visible. The tower of the machine is put in position 0-00 (or 30-00), and then by gradually moving the machine the central mark of the sight (or the crosshair of the sighting device) is combined with a reference point. After that, the angle is set to zero against the index. Setting the scale for reference is most often used for crossing under water. In this case, the landmark is chosen on the opposite bank..
Determining the direction of the longitudinal axis of the machine in magnetic azimuth.
In the initial position, the compass determines the magnetic azimuth of the longitudinal axis of the machine, for which they move away from the machine by 50-60 meters and measure the azimuth of direction along any side of the machine. For control, the azimuth of the direction is measured along the other side of the machine. The average value of the measured azimuths (the deviation during careful work with the compass usually does not exceed 0-50) will be the magnitude of the magnetic azimuth of the longitudinal axis of the machine, which is set on the scale of the device after turning on the gyrometer.
Determining the direction of the longitudinal axis of the machine along the terrain line.
The machine is installed as precisely as possible along a straight landmark (roads, clearings, communication or power lines, etc.) or parallel to it. To do this, the tower is placed in position 0-00 (or 30-00). Then the machine slowly moves forward while simultaneously turning in the right direction until the central mark of the sight (crosshair) is directed exactly along the linear landmark. With this position of the machine, the directional angle corresponding to the direction of the linear landmark is set on the scale of the device.
Tracking with a gyro.
Driving a car in a gyrocompass is carried out in the same manner as driving in azimuths. Why pre-prepare the necessary data. On the map, a route is planned, bypassing obstacles, landmarks on turns are selected and connected by straight lines, the distances between them and magnetic azimuths are determined and signed on the map (if the initial orientation is made in magnetic azimuth) or directional angles. If the initial orientation is by the directional angle.
At the starting point, where the initial orientation was made, the magnetic azimuth (or directional angle) of the longitudinal axis of the machine is set on the gyroheading scale and the gyroheading is uncovered. Then the machine is rotated so that a countdown is established against the index scale of the device, corresponding to the magnetic azimuth (or directional angle) of the direction of movement.
Having set the car in the right direction, they begin to move and drive the car so that throughout the given section of the route, the gyro-train keeps the set countdown. After passing the desired distance, determined by the speedometer, they find a turning point. Turn the car in the direction of the second reference point and continue driving.
Strictly straightforward driving on the ground is difficult, as tremors, roll of the car and detour of small obstacles are inevitable. Avoidance of significant obstacles should be provided in advance when preparing the map. All this causes an almost continuous fluctuation of the readings on the scale. However, it is necessary to strive to ensure that the fluctuations in the readings are approximately symmetrical with respect to the desired course.
When orienting with a gyro-feed, as well as when orienting on a machine that is not equipped with a gyro-feed, you should mentally record progress along the distance along the distance traveled.
Accuracy of keeping the route when driving with gyro.
The accuracy of maintaining the route on a machine with a gyro-feed depends on many factors. The main ones are:
Care of the main axis of the gyroscope.
Errors of the initial orientation of the machine and determination by the map of directional angles (magnetic azimuths) and distances.
Insufficiently careful retention of the required count against the index of the device while driving.
Most accurately (with an average error of up to 2% of the distance traveled), you can maintain the desired direction with the initial orientation of the car according to a landmark and subject to the skillful driving of the car. The established reading on the scale should not deviate from the index by more than two divisions. In the initial orientation of the machine using a compass or along the terrain using a map, the average deviation from the route can be about 5% of the distance traveled.
Based on materials from the Handbook of Military Topography.
A. M. Govorukhin, A. M. Kuprin, A. N. Kovalenko, M. V. Gamezo.