Going into the jungle in an emergency, orienteering, building temporary shelters and getting fire in the jungle.

Going through the jungle is extremely difficult. Overcoming dense thickets, numerous blockages from fallen trunks and large tree branches, creeping along the ground vines and disk-shaped roots requires great physical effort and makes you constantly deviate from the direct route. 

Emergency jungle trek, temporary shelter construction, and jungle fire production.

The situation is aggravated by high temperature and humidity. That is why the same physical activities in temperate and tropical climates turn out to be qualitatively different. In the jungle, energy consumption on the march at a temperature of 26.5 to 40.5 degrees and high air humidity almost doubles compared with temperate climates. The increase in energy expenditure, and consequently, the increase in heat production, puts the body, which is already experiencing a significant thermal load, in an even more unfavorable position. Sweating increases dramatically, but due to the high humidity of the air, the sweat does not evaporate, but flows down the skin, filling eyes, soaking clothes.

Profuse sweating not only does not bring relief, but also exhausts a person even more. Water losses on the march increase several times, reaching 0.5 1.1 l / h. Moving in the primary tropical forest, despite the obstacles, the abundance of fallen leaves, shrubs, wet marshy soil, is relatively simple. But in the thickets of the secondary jungle, you cannot make a step without the help of a machete knife. And sometimes, for a whole day, wading through a thicket of shrubs and bamboo, densely plexus of vines and tree shoots, you are sadly convinced that you have covered only 2 3 km. On paths trodden by people or animals, you can move at a much greater speed, but here and then you come across various obstacles.

However, do not try to leave the guiding thread of the path, becoming interested in a fancy plant or a strange bird. Sometimes it’s enough to take only a few steps to the side to get lost. It is extremely difficult to navigate in the rainforest, since the methods of determining the countries of the world by natural signs, which are usually used in the taiga and middle-range forests, are unacceptable.

Our old way of determining the north by moss growing on the shaded side of trees is not applicable in the jungle, wrote V.G. Norwood (1965). Mosses and parasites grow here wherever they can catch, clinging to a tree from all sides.

Crowns of trees prevent navigating the celestial bodies. Weaving among themselves, they form a continuous impenetrable canopy above the head, and in order to see the sun, sometimes one has to wait for this moment for hours. In order not to stray from the route, even with a compass, a noticeable landmark is drawn every 50-100 meters. The constant danger to the traveler in the jungle is represented by countless spines sticking out in different directions from the fragments of branches, saw-shaped edges of a pandanus palm. Even minor abrasions and scratches caused by them are easily infected, suppurate if they are not immediately lubricated with iodine or alcohol..

Cuts caused by razor-sharp edges of split bamboo trunks and stems of some herbs do not heal especially long. Sometimes, after a long, tiring journey through thickets and forest debris through trees, a river will suddenly flash. Of course, the first desire to plunge into cool water, to wash off sweat and fatigue. But to plunge on the move, heated up, this means putting yourself at great risk. The rapid cooling of an overheated organism causes a sharp spasm of blood vessels, including heart ones, for a favorable outcome of which it is difficult to vouch. R. Carmen in his book Light in the Jungle described the case when cameraman E. Mukhin, after a long transition in the jungle, did not cool down, dived into the river.

Swimming was fatal for him. As soon as he finished shooting, he fell dead. His heart sank, they barely drove him to the base (Carmen, 1957). When swimming in tropical rivers or when wading through them, a person may be attacked by crocodiles. In South American water bodies, no less dangerous are the piranhas, or piranhas (Serrasalmo piraya), small human-sized fish of black, yellow or purple color, with large scales, as if sprinkled with spangles.

The protruding lower jaw, seated with teeth as sharp as razor blades, gives it some special predation. Piranhas usually walk in shoals, numbering from several tens to several hundred and even thousands of individuals. The piranhic smell of blood causes an aggressive reflex, and, having attacked the victim, they do not calm down until there is only one skeleton left from it.

or the construction of a temporary dwelling is chosen so that there are no dead trees or trees with large dry branches nearby.

They break off even with small gusts of wind and, falling, can cause severe damage. Temporary shelter is easy to build from improvised materials. The frame is erected from bamboo trunks, and palm leaves laid on the rafters are used for coating. A fire is needed to dry damp clothes and shoes, cook food and scare away predatory animals at night..

In the absence of matches, fire is fired with a simple device from five bamboo slats 40-50 cm long and 5-8 cm wide. Having prepared the strips from dry bamboo (yellow), their sharp edges are cut off with a knife so as not to cut themselves. One of them, the rod, pointed at the end, is stuck in the ground to about half the length. Four others are folded in pairs with the convex side outwards, placing a dry tinder between each pair of planks. Then make transverse notches on the planks, and along them, firmly pressing the planks against the rod, move up and down until the tinder fades.

In another method, a longitudinal bar 10 15 cm long, 4-6 cm wide is cut from a dry bamboo knee. A transverse furrow is made in the middle of the strips, in the center of which a small hole is drilled into the pin head. Having made two small balls of bamboo chips, stack them on both sides of the hole on the grooved side of the plank. The knee is fixed with two pegs in front and behind. Then the balls are covered with a plate, pressing them with thumbs and applying a bar so that its transverse groove lies on the edge of the cut in the knee, quickly moving it back and forth until a haze appears. The corroded balls are inflated through the hole in the bar and transferred to the pre-prepared kindling.

Before going to bed, with the help of a smoke chamber, mosquitoes and mosquitoes are expelled from the house, and then they are placed at the entrance. At night, shift duty is established. It is the duty of the duty officer to maintain the fire throughout the night to prevent the predators from attacking..

Jungle River Swimming.

The best way to travel in the jungle is by swimming on the river. In addition to the large water arteries, such as the Amazon, Parana, Orinoco (in South America), Congo, Senegal, Nile (in Africa), Ganges, Mekong, Krasnaya, Perak (in Southeast Asia), the jungle crosses many quite passable rivers . The most reliable and convenient for swimming on tropical rivers is a raft made of bamboo material, which has great strength and high buoyancy. So, for example, a bamboo elbow 1 meter long and 8-10 cm in diameter has a lifting force of 5 kg. Bamboo is easy to process, but if careless, you can get deep cuts with sharp edges of bamboo chips.

Before starting work, it is recommended to carefully clean the joints under the leaves of thin hairs that cause prolonged irritation of the skin of the hands. Often in the trunks of dry bamboo various insects nest, and most often hornets, whose bites are very painful. Dark holes in the trunk indicate the presence of insects. To drive out insects, it is enough to hit the trunk several times with a machete knife. To build a raft for three people, 10-12 five-six-meter trunks are enough. They are fastened together by several wooden crossbars, and then carefully tied with a rope, creepers, flexible branches.

Before sailing, several three-meter bamboo poles are made. They measure the bottom, push off obstacles, etc. Swimming on tropical rivers is always fraught with surprises: a collision with a swarm, floating trees, large mammals and amphibians. Therefore, the watchman should not be distracted from his duties for a minute, continuously observing the water surface. 1 1.5 hours before dark, the raft is moored to the shore and, tied securely to a thick tree, set up a temporary camp.

Based on materials from the book Man in extreme environmental conditions.
V.G. Volovich.

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