and aerial photographs. It sets out methods for orienting on the ground, the procedure for compiling combat graphic documents. Samples of topographic maps, symbols and abbreviations used on the maps are given. Reference data on military topography are provided..
When writing the Handbook of Military Topography, the team of authors aimed to provide information on military topography in a form convenient for the reader. The reference material is systematized into main sections. Information that is not included in the thematic chapters is given in a separate chapter in the alphabetical-dictionary presentation and in separate paragraphs (paragraphs). Samples of topographic maps, symbols of topographic maps and a list of abbreviations accepted on the maps are placed in the appendix.
Book Contents Military Topography Handbook.
Chapter 1. Topographic and special maps.
1.1. Classification and purpose of topographic maps.
1.2. City plans and special maps.
1.3. Cartographic projections and geodetic basis of maps.
1.4. Topographic Map Projections.
1.5. Conventional signs and card design.
1.6. Completeness, detail and accuracy of maps.
1.7. Layout and nomenclature of topographic maps.
1.8. Preparing a card for work.
Chapter 2. Measurements on the map.
2.1. Measuring distances and areas.
2.2. Definition of rectangular coordinates.
2.3. Geographic coordinates and their definition on the map.
2.4. Polar and bipolar coordinates.
2.5. Determination of directional angles and azimuths.
Chapter 3. Aerial photographs of the area.
3.1. Purpose and possibilities of aerial photography.
3.2. Types of aerial photography and aerial photographs.
3.3. The scope of aerial photography.
3.4. Aerial Photography Documents.
3.5. Geometric and visual properties of aerial photographs.
3.6. Acquaintance with aerial photographs and their binding to a map.
3.7. Scale a planned aerial photograph.
3.8. Drawing a magnetic field line meridian.
3.9. Transferring objects (goals) from a planned aerial photograph to a map.
3.10. Drawing a kilometer grid on an aerial photograph and determining the coordinates of objects.
3.11. Using promising aerial photographs.
3.12. Stereoscopic aerial photographs.
3.13. Decoding aerial photographs.
Chapter 4. Study of the area.
4.1. Information about the area and how to study it.
4.2. Description of the main types of terrain.
4.3. Traffic conditions.
4.4. Protective properties of the area.
4.5. Masking, surveillance and firing conditions.
4.6. Building profiles and determining the mutual visibility of points.
4: 7. Terrain.
4.8. Hydrographic objects.
4.9. Road network and route study.
4.10. Vegetation and soil.
4.12. Seasonal Terrain Changes.
4.13. Terrain change in the area of a nuclear explosion.
4.14. Study and assessment of terrain in the main types of combat.
4.15. Making layouts of the area.
Chapter 5. Terrain measurements, target designation, combat graphic documents.
5.1. Angle measurement.
5.2. Measurement of distances (ranges).
5.3. Determining the height of objects.
5.4. Determination of slope steepness.
5.5. Targeting on the map and on the ground.
5.6. Map targets and other objects.
5.7. Combat Graphics.
Chapter 6. Orienteering.
6.1. The essence and methods of orientation.
6.2. Orienteering without a map.
6.3. Magnetic compasses and methods of working with them.
6.4. Azimuth movement.
6.5. Map orientation.
6.6. Orienteering features in various conditions.
6.7. Orientation when examining the area from a helicopter.
6.8. Keeping the route with gyro.
6.9. Orientation with a coordinator.
6.10. Orientation with the help of a course planner.
Chapter 7. General Reference.
7.1. Terms and concepts not included in the thematic chapters.
7.2. Determining the time of dawn and darkness.
7.3. Corner measures.
7.4. Linear measures.
7.5. Determination of speed and wind power.
7.6. Military Topography Standards.
7.7. Recommended textbooks and manuals on military topography.
1. Samples of topographic maps.
2. Symbols of topographic maps on a scale of 1: 25 000, 1: 50 000, 1: 100 000 and 1: 200 000.
3. Symbols of topographic maps on a scale of 1: 500 000 and 1: 1 000 000.
4. Conditional abbreviations adopted on topographic maps.