The hornet is a large hymenoptera insect of the wasp family. At the same time, the hornets are much more poisonous than wasps and bees, moreover, like the wasp, its sting does not remain in the wound, that is, the hornet bite will not necessarily be a single one.
- Hornet poison
- 2 Symptoms and effects of a hornet bite
- 3 First aid for hornet bite
- 4What categorically should not be done in case of a hornet bite
- 5Prevention of the hornet bite
Moreover, multiple bites are one of the characteristic features of these insects. Naturally, multiple bites will lead to more serious consequences, as well as poison enters the body more.
The most poisonous are tropical species of hornets, where up to 40 people die from the bite of hornets each year. This is more than from the attack of wild animals. And our local is far more harmless. However, in Russia, the hornet bite for a person can be fatal due to an allergic reaction.
It is believed that the hornet bite is very painful, however, the bite itself is less sensitive than, for example, bee sting. Pain causes the spread of poison.
Hornets are predators, not for nothing that the beekeepers try so hard to fight them. Even a single hornet can destroy a whole hive of bees. Large powerful mandibles are located in his mouth, with the help of which the hornet tears smaller insects and eats them.
They usually settle in abandoned buildings, dense forest areas, abandoned bee hives.
There is such a parameter as the LD50. It means the amount of poison needed for 50% of the control group to die. Indicated in micrograms per kilogram of weight. For the hornet venom, this figure is 50.
One hornet releases 0.26 mg into the blood. That is, the hornet bite itself cannot be fatal. To do this, a person must be bitten by several hundred individuals, which, of course, is not possible. But this is not a reason to relax: hornets are dangerous because their bite can cause a strong allergic reaction, which is not so rare.
The composition of the hornet venom includes the following substances:
- Histamine – this substance is part of the immune response of the human body to the outside world. Violations of this mechanism – an increase in the level of histamine in the blood in response to certain products – and leads to allergies. The additional injection of histamine into the blood naturally increases the likelihood of an allergic reaction.
- Serotonin – this substance is also called the hormone of happiness. However, its excess at a specific point in the body leads to severe pain. And serotonin causes the release of acetylcholine into the blood and increases the effect of histamine, the consequences are obvious.
- Acetylcholine – this substance dilates blood vessels and at the same time lowers blood pressure. Because of this, there is an outflow of blood from the limbs and the head.
- Kinins cause acute pain at the site of the bite.
- Phospoliptosis is an enzyme that breaks down cell walls and promotes the spread of poison in the body.
Symptoms and effects of a hornet bite
Those who have ever been bitten by hornets will not confuse his symptoms with anything and will not wonder if such a bite is dangerous. The symptoms of a bite are as follows:
- acute pain at bite site;
- redness and severe swelling;
- nausea, vomiting;
- decrease in body temperature in the region of the limbs due to outflow of blood;
- neck, lips and ears turn bluish for the same reason;
- rapid pulse;
- lowering blood pressure;
- dizziness, loss of consciousness, the latter is rare, but is an absolute indication to call an ambulance;
- speech confusion;
- seizures may rarely occur, in which case emergency medical assistance is also needed.
For allergy sufferers, anaphylactic shock and angioedema can be one of the consequences of a hornet bite, and this is what can cause a person to die. Therefore, it is very important in a timely manner, in the first few minutes, to provide first aid to the victim.
First aid for hornet bite
What to do with the bite of a hornet? First you need to examine the wound. Usually the sting of a hornet does not remain in the wound, but in rare cases its particles break off. If you can see foreign objects, they should be removed with tweezers. This should be done very carefully.
The next step is to prevent the spread of poison through the body. To do this, in the first minutes you can try to suck the poison out of the wound. But you should not get involved in this, as the wound heals up quickly. And if you spend too much time on this, you may not have time to do other necessary procedures.
Then you need to wipe the bite with a cotton swab dipped in alcohol solution, peroxide or potassium permanganate. This is necessary in order to disinfect the wound in case the pathogens lived on the sting of the hornet.
Another very important measure is cooling the wound. It is also necessary to slow the spread of poison in the body. To the wound you need to attach ice or at least some frozen product in a plastic bag. A cloth bag of sugar can be put between the cooling wrap and the skin. Sugar pulls off some of the poison.
After 15 minutes, the sugar can be removed, it will fulfill its task, and be replaced with a tampon dipped in lemon or onion juice or in a solution of vinegar. By nature, the poison is alkaline hornet. Any acid also neutralizes the poison, at least partially.
It is also useful to take antihistamines: Suprastin, diphenhydramine and others like them. If there are obvious symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as urticaria, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing and the like, it makes sense to take more potent drugs: Prednisolone or Dexamethasone. It is only necessary to keep in mind that these are quite strong drugs with their own set of side effects. Without urgent need to apply them is not necessary. Allergy sufferers, as a rule, with them have the most suitable drugs for them.
If the symptoms of a hornet bite are not too pronounced, then it is possible to do with home treatment. To do this, fit the usual ointment from insect bites, as well as drugs such as Fenestil and Soventol.
However, if the victim feels weak, dizzy, the temperature rises, the edema becomes too strong, symptoms of allergy appear, it is necessary to call an ambulance without fail. The case is usually complicated by the fact that hornet bites often occur outside the city. This means that the ambulance will go too long. You can ask the dispatchers ambulance to advise you on further action.
If you decide to transport the patient to the hospital, for example, if there is no cellular connection, it is important to remember some details. First, the head must be below body level. You can also lift the legs. Secondly, it is possible to transport such a patient only in the supine position.
To save the patient from anaphylactic shock, doctors can inject him adrenaline, as well as glucocorticoid. In critical cases, intubation is possible.
It is also worth calling to the Ambulance if the victim is less than 16 years old. Children are especially sensitive to poison, besides their immune system is less developed than in adults. Another reason to call an ambulance is a bite of a hornet in the tongue, mucous membranes, neck or faces. In this case, problems with breathing may occur due to the inevitable swelling at the site of the bite. The intervention of the doctor is also necessary if there are several bites.
What absolutely can not be done in the case of a hornet bite
In addition, what needs to be done after a bite, it is necessary to clearly remember what to do in any case is impossible. First of all, you can not vigorously rub the bite or try to squeeze out the poison. All these actions accelerate the movement of blood, which in turn will lead to a more rapid spread of poison through the body.
Also, in no case can not drink alcohol after a bite. It will cause the strengthening of the already not small swelling of soft tissues.
As an antihistamine with the bite of a hornet, it is absolutely impossible to use Diprazin. The fact is that this drug, as well as the poison of the hornet, causes a similar response of the immune system.
And of course, you can not carelessly treat the fact of the hornet bite. This is not a wasp, and not a bee. The consequences in any case will be more serious. Unfortunately, it is in the event of neglect of the incident that the development of complications and the death of the victim are possible.
Hornet bite prevention
In order to protect yourself from the bite of this large and dangerous insect, you need to try to stay away from the places of potential habitat of hornets: abandoned buildings, old apiaries, frequent forests.
If you notice a hornet’s nest near a place of rest or residence, get away from it and call specialists who will make sure that you don’t encounter any more hornets. Trying to get rid of the dangerous neighborhood yourself is not worth it, the slightest mistake can end in tragedy.
Hornets do not suffer like wasps, strong curiosity, and therefore are unlikely to fly to the crowds. But if, after all, he flew up or you yourself departed from the company and met with the hornet, remember that they are predators and, by definition, very aggressive. Any of your sudden movement, they can be interpreted as an attempt to attack. The reaction will be natural – reciprocal attack.
No need to dismiss the hornet or run away. It is better to stand still or try to slowly step aside.
Unlike wasps and bees, the hornet can not only bite a person, but also simply splash poison on the skin. This means that a mosquito net designed to protect against bees and wasps as a protective coat against the hornet will not work. Of course, getting poison on the skin is not as dangerous as the bite itself. However, there is a great risk that the poison will get into the eyes. And this is pretty serious.