As the use of electricity increases exponentially day by day, man needs to find better ways to harness electricity on an individual level. This unique solution is the use of solar energy, which can create a sustainable form of energy that is not exhausted due to the blind use of energy by humanity.
By choosing to harness the energy of sunlight, you not only print the practice of your knowledge and your power, but you also make the environment healthier, safer and unpolluted in the long term. Keep reading to find out how solar energy works and how to make it work on your own!
What is solar energy?
Solar energy takes advantage of solar energy, which is energy or fuel made from sunlight. This is usually done with the help of advanced mechanical equipment that produces electricity directly from sunlight with the help of photovoltaic (PV) or concentrated solar power (CSP). These equipment use elements such as solar panels, utility networks, utility meters, electrical panels, inverters and PowerGuide monitoring systems. Photovoltaics process sunlight through the photovoltaic effect.
Historically, the first photovoltaic cell was manufactured at the end of the 19th century by Charles Fritts and commercially produced five decades later. Since the 1980s, there has been a growing increase in the commercial level of solar energy. The duration of a currently available photovoltaic cell is 25 to 40 years of operation with little or no maintenance.
How does solar energy work?
Making solar energy on your own is really a good plan to save on your electricity. In addition, doing your own solar energy also gives you the additional benefits of living outside the network, on the best terms. When it is no longer part of the national electricity grid, the sense of independence is also added to the realization of the proper use of electricity.
Solar energy cells use the speed of photon energy in sunlight to generate an electric current with the help of a solar cell. Created in the core of the sun, it takes approximately one million years for a photon to reach the surface of the Earth. Lighting our beautiful planet for years, this power is infinite, inexhaustible and the source of purest energy.
The process of converting sunlight into electrical energy is how solar energy is generated. Solar energy can be stored or used directly, according to the conversion process or quality of the equipment used. Starting at the beginning, you should know that there are three types of cells used for this: monocrystalline, amorphous polycrystalline and silicon.
The most popular cells are those that are made of silicon and will be considered in our article. Sunlight is made up of tiny photons that radiate the sun. As the silicon in the solar cell is reached by the photons, it transfers its energy to the electrons that surround them, which separates them from the atoms.
The solar cell releases the electrons and then converts them into an electric current. This, in turn, creates instability in the cell, which structures it in a descending or descending direction, causing the electrons to flow in the right direction. The internal organization of silicon is structurally narrow here.
Since silicon is a semiconductor, usually two different substances are incorporated into this structure (phosphorus and boron) to create two types of charges. This helps with the movement of the electrons, which leave holes in their initial slot. The result is the creation of two types of electrons called type p (positive) and type n (negative).
When the two types are kept side by side, the electrons in the new structure jump into the empty slot of the other structure. This results in both structures loading positively and, respectively, negatively.
In short, the cells convert sunlight into direct current during the day, the inverter converts direct current into alternating current and an electrical panel supplies the electricity needed for the entire house.
There are many incredible ways to take advantage of clean and renewable energy, and the use of solar energy is easy and convenient, even for amateurs. First, choose your location, equipment, budget and process. Some of these methods are listed in the following ideas.
Make a solar panel and learn how solar energy works.
Making a solar panel is the best way to understand how solar energy is transferred from the sun to your home and how to power your appliances. Anything from the purchase of cells to mounting the panel on your roof (or another south-facing location) will teach you a little more about solar energy.
Put the cells together in a panel (steps to follow)
Buy the cells: The best cost-effective cells to buy are polycrystalline cells. First, be careful with handling these cells, as they are extremely fragile. Buy cells equivalent to the watt / energy you need. Buy extra cells to use in emergencies.
Clean the cells Often, manufacturers cover the cell with wax before shipping, for safety reasons. Before using the cell, keep it submerged in hot water that is not boiling.
Make a table: this is used to firmly join the cells. Measure the dimensions of your cells and cut a table with additional inches from its edges, to connect the cable, in the future.
Wiring: Cut the necessary cable measures you need for the cells. Two lines are directed in two directions of short and, respectively, long measurements. The tabulation cable in this process must follow the two long lines to connect to the next cell, on its back. Measure the length of this large line, double its length and then cut two pieces of wire for each of its cells.
Welding: If you do not have pre-welded tabs, create a thin layer of solder in the squares on the back of the cells. Heat the upper half of the fixing cable on top of the weld to connect it to the cell. Repeat the same with all the strips.
Connect cells: Glue the cells on the board with the wires open, free and loose.
Fix cells on the board.: Keep the cells horizontal, in a few numbers. When placing the cells, leave an extra inch on each side.
Solder the cells: Solder the cells using the cable with tabs to connect it from the back of one cell to the other cell.
Connect the first row: The extended tabulation wire of the welding in the previous step must be welded with a bus cable to be filled between the thick lines of the cells.
Connect the second row: Connect the cable with tab from the end of the first row to the front of the second row with a long bus cable. Connect the four cables to the bus cable.
Connect all the rows: Connect the rows using long bus cables, except at the end for which, and use the trip bus cables.
Make the panel box
Measure the dimensions of your cell panel (the one you made earlier), leaving an inch on all edges to include the perfect fit of the cells along with loose or additional wiring. Then cut some plywood to make a flat back for your panel box; This should cover the cells. Screw and screw the sides with wooden panels correctly measured.
Paint: If you want to keep the solar panel outdoors, you need to paint the box to ensure time wear.
Install the solar panel: Stick the panel in the box with the cells. Be sure to keep the cells facing the sun, so you can get enough sunlight to use.
Wire the panel with batteries.
Connect the end bus cable with a diode using silicone. Next, connect the light shaded end to the negative marker on the battery and the opposite end to the positive end of the panel. These connections prevent backward load flow when the equipment is not in use. Continuing, connect the black wire shaded on the diode and run it on a terminal block.
Connect the white wire of the short bus cable opposite the terminal block. Now, connect the panel to a charge controller, connect the charge controller to the batteries and run the battery!
Seal the box
Buy the necessary amount of Plexiglas needed for your panel / box and screw it to the panel, tight and tight. Make block stops and fix it to secure your glass in the box. Use a silicone sealant to seal the edges of the panel box and make sure the box is waterproof.
Mount the panel
There are several ways to assemble a panel, such as
- in a car to keep changing direction, following the Sun;
- on the roof keeping the angle constant with the sun;
- in a satellite support, which can be changed with respect to the sun beam
As you can see, making a solar panel is not that important; You only need the right tools and solar cells.
Of course, you can buy them from reliable producers, but they will be more expensive and you will not have as much fun as when you learn by doing.
Solar energy generators
Continuing with the lesson, let’s talk about one of the best and most efficient ways to generate your own energy: the solar energy generators. These have fantastic commercial success, but making one is not a hassle.
Simply follow the steps described below and you must have your own solar generator in no time.
Things you will need:
- Solar panel,
- Cable connectors,
- Load controller,
- Inverter and battery.
Start by connecting the battery and the inverter with the cables connecting negative to negative and positive to positive. Connect the battery to the charge controller and now connect this mix to the solar panel. First, connect the negative poles of the cables and leave your configuration with the solar panel facing the sunlight.
When you charge more than 50%, connect your home to the investor and perform a test. This can light a standard 60W bulb for about 7 hours, 16 W for 25 hours, a TV for about 3 hours, an X box One for 3.5 hours, a laptop for 5.5 hours and a DVD player for approximately 12 hours.
As you can see with a reliable plan and adequate knowledge, it is easy to set your solar energy at home for less than $ 300, which is extraordinarily less than what producers charge for their systems. Here is our shopping list:
- 12 V battery: a gel / acid / lead classified: in an RV store or Greenbatteries
- Battery case: $ 10
- 12 V DC Meter: $ 25
- DC input: $ 10- triple entry model
- Inverter: $ 50- 115 V 140 W
Make the connections and wiring as needed (as described in the first step) and in 5-8 hours of charging, the solar energy of your home will be ready for 5 hours of constant use at 115 V AC. Still, you must remember that this is a home-made system and its reliability only depends on your abilities. All the information presented here is purely theoretical and its purpose is to teach you how solar energy works.
Pros and cons of solar energy
Solar energy seems to all professionals at first glance, but is it really? Let’s see what are the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy systems.
Advantages of the use of solar energy.
Energy saving: In the severe age of energy shortages, it is necessary for everyone to start creating their own energy. The energy saving feature of solar energy is the best attractive feature of it.
Saving money: With the saving of energy in the exorbitant electricity bills, you save a lot of money. You are no longer required to pay your bills in the middle on a randomly occupied day!
No waste of electricity: Saving money on electricity may not seem fascinating, but when those bills stop coming, you will understand the personal growth you have, because it generates your own energy.
Unlimited / limited energy: The best aspect of creating your own energy is that it is unlimited. Solar energy is truly infinite, regardless of whether all the dams dry out or not.
Renewable energy: Solar energy is one of the cleanest renewable energies. It is renewable, since it is sustainable together with the presence of sun and inexhaustible, due to the longevity of the sun. In addition, it is a source of non-polluting energy, unlike the burning of manure gas or anything similar.
No air pollution: As the process does not emit greenhouse gases, our planet is doubly safe with more solar cells around the corner.
No noise pollution: Unlike noisy generators and noisy rails along power boards, solar power does not cause disturbances or noise when it works. This is undoubtedly an advantage for our world; Each new gadget has a new key or melody by itself!
There is no carbon footprint: As there is no carbon, ejected or emitted during the transformation of energy and processes, it leaves no carbon footprints.
Support the environment: Live in peace and in harmony with nature, go ahead!
Disadvantages of using solar energy
- Any temporary / long-term malfunction can cause a power cut until it is resolved;
- The initial cost is high;
- The location of the solar panel is fixed and, therefore, can not be adjusted to the sun, since the solar panel remains at an angle oriented towards the sky, receives very little sun and not the sunlight of the whole day;
- Fixed solar panels stop receiving enough sunlight in several stations;
- High maintenance costs: as the equipment itself costs a fortune, any malfunction will determine a considerable bill for professional maintenance;
- The inefficiency or the absorption rate of 40% of the sunlight makes it an inconvenience;
- This is not a completely reliable energy unless your cells are charged with sunlight without being depleted. It depends on sunlight;
- The installation area is huge for larger buildings;
- Cleaning is a nuisance: if the solar panels are fixed on the roof, routine cleaning can be risky.
- Because the panels are delicate, care must be taken when handling them at all times, making them even more vulnerable!
Tips to take advantage of solar energy.
Some advice from the Pros To avoid danger, damage and waste while creating your own solar energy, they are listed below!
- Increase the efficiency of your solar panel by keeping it clean periodically
- Always have knowledge of the electricity that is producing and exhausting.
- Conserve energy and stop wasting energy unnecessarily.
- Do tasks of energy consumption during the day.
- Install controlled meters
- Eliminate all shade problems that prevent sunlight from reaching your cells or panels
- Periodically supervise the equipment.
- Stay safe while handling tasks with electricity.
- Handle cells safely because they are fragile.
- Use energy safely, smartly and efficiently!
Creating your own energy gives you the independence to truly live outside the network and be aware of your energy uses.
Instill a sense of responsibility in the waste of energy and new ideas to preserve the same. Whatever your reason for doing solar energy at home is that you should not get carried away or distracted by the lingo of the Internet.
If you are skeptical, talk to an expert, but be sure to buy the best game and install it immediately. In this age, making your own energy is in fact the most intelligent and obligatory task that everyone should do!
Good luck for you!