An imminent bomb attack would make you think of ways to build a bomb shelter, any kind of defense structure designed to provide protection against the damaging effects of a bomb. Where to build the anti-aircraft shelter is important, but the most important thing is to know where the initial explosion of the bomb will be because both the explosion and the aftermath are very catastrophic.
During the Cold War, countries such as the United States, Russia and other industrialized nations built shelters for high-ranking government officials. The shelters that were commonly known as bunkers were built underground or within the boundaries of buildings and were strong enough to handle a nuclear explosion and the resulting radiation that would occur.
At present, there are many companies that are manufacturing prefabricated homes, but they are quite expensive and may be far from your budget. If you want to build your pump housing on a small budget, then consider doing it yourself. By building your own anti-aircraft shelter you not only save money, but you also have the opportunity to design and build your own anti-aircraft shelter.
People have different ideas about building an air raid shelter that suits their needs. Many would like to have the comforts of home to which they were accustomed, so they would choose to have a modest anti-aircraft shelter that would have basic needs such as rooms, a dining room and a toilet.
Others who do not have money to spare, of course, will do everything possible to build the shelter with their own hands and will have family and friends to help them. The following would provide a perspective on the different ways in which a modest shelter is constructed, how it is built on a budget and how to build a modern or accurate bomb shelter.
Building a modest anti-aircraft shelter
Before building the air raid shelter, you must know the soil conditions in your immediate vicinity. The condition of the soil will vary with the seasons, so you should know when you should start making the designs and excavations. If possible, a soil test should be performed to know its capacity for retention.
The reason you should worry about the soil is that you need to dig deep into the soil and the soil should not give way once you start working underground. Once you have dug deep enough to enter the proposed bomb shelter, start with masonry or concrete work. However, the final touches and division work within the refuge need not be too complex, just a simple one.
When the underground construction is completed, it is time to stock up on water supplies, canned food, clothing and other supplies that may be necessary for a long underground stay.
General design of a modest anti-aircraft shelter.
An underground shelter, as expected, is crammed with any standard, but a modest shelter for bombs should have the following: bunker beds that fold with lower bunk beds and that could be used for sitting. A non-electric composting toilet should also be available and separate from the bedrooms. A main cabin, which opens onto the ground with a vertical staircase at the entrance, must be constructed to provide access to and from the refuge.
The shaft must be sealed with an armored door at the top and bottom for added protection when an explosion occurs. In addition to these safety features, you will need a grenade sump that must be built on the floor directly below the hatch for additional protection against any form of explosion.
An emergency hatch should be built in the back of the shelter against rain and should be shorter than the entrance hatch. The emergency hatch would be a very important part of the shelter, especially when the entrance or the main hatch is compromised. The entry point of the emergency hatch should be opened in just below one foot of sand and on the ground, it must be hidden. In case of emergency, the hatch opens and the sand begins to fall into the shelter and residents can leave.
The following is a summary of how to build an anti-aircraft shelter with a budget. There may be a difference in the way it is done in the way a modest anti-aircraft shelter is built, but the goal of being safe remains the same.
The preliminary plan for a low cost anti-aircraft shelter.
Before building your air raid shelter, you must have a design for it. You do not need an elegant design, but your plan should show the measures you need to build your air-raid shelter. Second, you must have an idea of where to build the shelter.
The ideal location to build it would be in your backyard if you have the space for it. Otherwise, you can look for a place that is nearby, since it would not be practical to build your anti-aircraft shelter in a distant place, since it could be difficult to reach when a bomb detonates. When you are ready with your design, it’s time to plot the area.
Put the stakes to the extent of where your construction will be and cordon off the area, so that no one can enter your construction site. It is recommended that the floor area of your shelter be 8’x16 ‘. It must have an entrance hatch, an emergency hatch that opens inward and could house four (4) people and their immediate supplies for a period of twenty-eight (28) days.
The tools you will need.
Make a list of the tools you will need for construction such as picks, shovels, etc. Also make a list of the building materials you will need such as bricks, cement, gravel and sand, steel bars, wooden planks and others. When you have accumulated your building materials, it is time to start building your underground shelter.
Building the air-raid shelter on a budget
To build the shelter, the initial phase of construction would be to dig a trench. The first part of the construction process will have to do with the excavation to be below the surface of the earth. Assign a task to each family member depending on their strength to help with the construction process. Every time a substantial amount of soil is removed, remove it from the area with cubes. Dig a ditch as deep as you want, but remember that the lower you are underground, the more protection you will have.
After you have finished digging and placing logs and posts at the top of the trench, make sure the logs are at least one foot wider than the trench. After placing the trunks at the top of the trench, cover the cracks that you see with leaves or cloths. After being absolutely sure that the dirt can not enter the living space that has been excavated, place the soil that has been excavated on top of the trunks for greater protection. Build a toilet in a space that is separated with a blanket or cloth of any kind.
Install make seedbeds if you know how to build a bunk or you can use old blankets and stack them one on top of the other. Make sure you have two exits from the shelter in case of an emergency such as a fire. It is also better to keep in mind that when you are building your own shelter, the highest priority would be how to get natural ventilation without the use of electricity.
Air is important for everyone who lives in an air raid shelter because shelters that do not have a proper ventilation system would make people inside suffer from carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide poisoning.
Each individual within the shelter must have an adequate space of twenty square feet, if possible, to provide enough space for the person to eat, sleep and store the necessary supplies. Also keep in mind the entry and exit points of your refuge. A door must be built to be turned up or down according to its location and the purpose of building the shelter.
The shields of an anti-aircraft shelter.
A rainproof bulletproof shelter must have adequate shielding that must be ten times thicker than any quality material, as it can help reduce exposure to gamma rays in half. Then, when the shelters are constructed with cement, the resulting concrete structure should be six centimeters or 2.4 inches or nine centimeters or 3.6 inches of compacted earth.
When these materials are combined, protection intensifies. To build the shelter, a ditch with a strong roof must be buried under three feet of land. Its end must be constructed with the correct angles to prevent gamma rays from falling. The armored doors must be designed to absorb the shock wave of a nuclear explosion by bending and then returning to their original position and shape.
Controlling the temperature
The anti-aircraft shelters must have an effective cooling system because after some time in the subsoil, the temperature increases and the bomb shelter heats up.
Therefore, the shelter should have heavy flaps that can swing from the hinges on the roof and should open in one direction and can be closed upside down.
Suitable locations for the shelter.
Public shelters can be built within the middle floors of tall buildings or within parking structures. The buildings, which have more than ten stories, can house an underground anti-aircraft shelter because the thickness of the previous floors provides an effective shield against the explosion and rain of a bomb. Road tunnels are also effective in the construction of shelters. In short, it is not necessary that bomb shelters or rain shelters are always underground.
Stocks and contents
An air defense shelter must have supplies that are needed in the following manner: picks, shovels, hammers, large water containers, a portable stove and many other necessities to survive. It is important to have plenty of water, so there must be enough stock of it.
The rule of three in the survival of the bomb.
It is based on the number three, which is normally used to measure the degree to which humans can survive in the event of a nuclear bomb explosion. Remember, humans can not survive more than three seconds of the explosion and can not live more than three minutes without air. They also can not survive extreme exposure conditions and can not live without water for three days or without food for more than thirty days.
With the foregoing in mind, the priority in the design of anti-aircraft shelters must be: the shelter must have adequate protection against explosions in the event of a nuclear explosion; the continuous air flow provided by the air vents must be built inside; there must be sufficient protection during extreme heat without relying on external energy systems; there must be sufficient water supply to last at least eight days or more; and there must be adequate food to last more than thirty days.
Survive after the bomb explosion.
To survive the detonation of a nuclear bomb is to be somewhere else when it is fired. Unfortunately, most of us would not know when and where it would happen. But when he does and they surprised him or they did not arrive at the air-raid shelter they built, here are some tips on how to survive after the explosion.
Shelter after the initial explosion.
With the presence of terrorists and small nations that have the capacity to produce a nuclear bomb of 1 to 10 kilotons, studies show that the advice to stay in a shelter for a certain time is not the best key to survive. At least not in all cases. The first step is to overcome the detonation of the primary pump. Take an example in which the expected scenario would be a 5 kiloton explosion that explodes in a building with a height of 60 meters or 200 feet.
The explosion dispersed an explosion of approximately 50 percent that carries a radiation of approximately 35 percent and an ionizing radiation of approximately five percent in the first explosion that would produce a 10 percent drop.
In order to get through the first stage of the explosion, you must go to the nearest evacuation site or remain in your place if you are inside a protective building and remain in place for 24 hours until you are told to leave before. But since most of the sturdy structures could have been damaged, it is still better to take refuge in the basement of a less intact house than to have no cover, at least blocking fifty percent of the consequences of radiation.
What to do during the initial explosion?
Before taking any other step, consider whether the wind direction is continuous. If the wind is constant, the dangerous effect of the rain plume can be avoided by walking at right angles to the plume. You should also bear in mind that radioactive materials are slow to fall to the ground, especially near the site of the explosion, but exposure to radiation is the least concern.
What you need to worry about is how to avoid falling debris, falling buildings and fire. Although any of these may be some drastic effects and what the case presents, there is another course of action that can be taken instead of staying in one place.
Survivors should know how long it will take to access an adequate shelter. In the midst of a five kiloton explosion, a good shelter is basically a multi-storey building, still standing, that can provide an adequate shelter in its intermediate floors; or in the center of a large concrete building or inside a basement without damage. According to the calculations, if a suitable shelter is less than five minutes walking, it would be prudent to go there immediately after the explosion.
The exposure to radiation, with which it will come into contact, will be compensated by the protection of the best anti-aircraft shelter. But if a good or better shelter is less than 15 minutes away, then stay in your current refuge area for no more than 30 minutes and transfer it to a better shelter. The strategy of moving to a better shelter will offset your exposure when you start moving and transferring.
The possibility of a nuclear explosion of a five-kiloton bomb is assumed by the fact that the bomb was made by current terrorists or small states that do not have very sophisticated technology to create a more sophisticated bomb. The explosion and the consequences of this attack with a 5 kiloton bomb is quite small, with an outline of 100 rem / h that initially affects approximately 1.5 square miles or 3.8 square kilometers.
There you have the forms of what is needed to build various types of bomb shelters according to your preferences, as well as ways to survive a bomb attack, which we hope will never happen due to catastrophic effects, including damage to properties and the interruption of work. and injuries or loss of life.