War and other dangerous situations such as tornadoes, hurricanes and violent storms have always terrified people and made them want a safe haven. That is why, even today, people are asking themselves how to build a shelter against the consequences, so that they always have a safe place to stay in case of a serious situation. Although it is true that the construction of a secondary shelter can be in vain, since in reality it can never be used for any type of emergency, the tranquility that it offers to the owner of the shelter makes the real investment wise.
Some shelters are crudely built with the basic basic elements, while others are built with kits with all the comforts one would want while hiding from the dangerous outside world. There are many types of shelters that a person or family can build, and such shelters have a variety of features and functions.
Fallout shelters are constructions that offer you and / or your family a safe place in case of an emergency, whether the emergency is a dangerous storm or something worse, such as radiation from nuclear rain. After a nuclear attack, after the explosion, small particles, all irradiated, fall from the sky, as if it were raining. The term irradiated means that all the particles have been exposed to the radiation of the nuclear explosion, and therefore, such particles propagate the radiation through the earth over a wide radius.
These same details are transported by the wind so they can spread further. Once in the water, the water is contaminated with radiation and the moving water can also transport the irradiated particles a considerable distance.
People build shelters for their protection against radiation in the event of a nuclear attack, but they also use them as a safe haven for use during other serious or life-threatening events. The materials used for the construction of rain shelters include, among others, the following:
- Concrete blocks
- Particularly dense materials.
Dense materials are ideal for the construction of shelters against rain, since it allows greater protection against radiation over a prolonged period of time: therefore, the existing radiation decreases due to its half-life. If a rain shelter is properly constructed, it will not allow more than 1/40 to 1/250 of all radiation and irradiated particles to pass through its walls.
Basics of Fallout Shelter
Whether you are building a rain shelter from the beginning or if you are using an existing structure and you are becoming a fall shelter, your safe area must have specific characteristics and materials. First of all, you need an adequate ventilation system of some kind, and if it works with electricity, the ventilation system will require some kind of backup power source that you can use in case of power failure.
A current source of fresh water is definitely something you want to have access to while you are in a shelter, but if you can not get a regular source of water, a bottled water reserve is your second best option. Inside the shelter, you will also need access to a bathroom: this can be achieved by adding a composting, emergency or chemical toilet if you do not want to invest in plumbing and installation supplies for installation.
With any shelter construction, it is likely to cool off in the evening hours. If it is winter or when it is cold, you will need a heat source to warm up. A space heater or kerosene heater will help maintain a comfortable room temperature for everyone in the shelter. Keep in mind that you will need enough space to operate the heater and, as with the kerosene heater, you will need to store fuel for continuous use.
Finally, a shelter against the rain has no windows, so lighting is a necessity. Along with artificial lighting, like flashlights that work with batteries, you’ll need flashlights that work with batteries.
Types of shelters against rain
There are several types of shelters you can build, all of which have different characteristics. Here you will find a summary of each type of shelter so you can decide which one works best for your needs:
Shelter of the family: Encouraged by nuclear fears in abundance during the years 19050 and 1960, people began to build family shelters that were built with concrete and were typically added to a basement in the home. This shelter had ventilated the floors to ensure a properly ventilated space, and the entrance was made with a sharp turn to the left or to the right before reaching the entrance, since it was believed that the intensity of the radiation decreased. Here is a video from the National Archives on how to build a shelter in a basement:
On earth against earth: They are constructions placed about four feet underground. The four feet of the earth are capable of decreasing the intensity of exposure to gamma rays. In previous versions of underground shelters, ventilation systems were hand-cracked devices connected to an air filtering device on the surface through a pipe.
Today, you can equip an underground shelter with a modern ventilation system to ensure superior quality. Alternatively, there is the option of making a shelter on the ground, but these shelters are best for people who live in places with higher water table levels; Keep in mind that surface shelters do not have the level of protection that an underground option has.
Additional types of rain shelter
While there are many people who build shelters against the rain with classic designs, some people become really creative with shelters. The traditional method for building an underground structure against falls includes the construction of a frame made of cement blocks and the pouring of concrete around the frame for protection; Some people use extremely unique shelter frames.
Some of the most unusual shelter deposits include:
- Concrete Sewers
- Fuel tanks
- Ocean containers
- Old exhausted school buses
- Steel steels
- Water tanks
However, there are some special considerations that must be taken into account when using unique elements for the framing of an underground construction. First, many of the items mentioned above are used on the ground and, therefore, require additional interior clamps to ensure that they can handle the pressure and weight applied to them when they are underground. By reinforcing the selected frame, you can better handle the weight of the concrete that you apply.
Also, in the event that you use an ocean container for an underground deck, it must be placed face down on the ground so that the container has sufficient strength to support being below the ground.
Creative shelters can be good for certain threats such as storm survivors, but may not offer the kind of protection that more sophisticated shelters can provide. Ultimately, the level of protection a shelter will provide is based on how the shelter is built and with what materials it is built.
Underground building – foundations
People build shelters in the backyards or in a remote area away from big cities and many people. After choosing the location, you will have to dig a big hole: This is where a backhoe or excavator is useful. If you do not have access to subsequent equipment, you can call a professional contractor to drill the hole for you. The excavation can not begin without building permits. You should also contact the utility company to find out if there is underground wiring where you plan to dig.
To minimize the amount you have to dig, it is best to find a hill or mound important to dig; The hole you dig should be large enough to contain the frame of your entire shelter, so measurements will first be required.
It may be necessary to place a sump pump in the hole you have dug before laying the foundation of the shelter. It is necessary to place a form so that you can lay the foundations. You must make a plumb line for the electricity and plumbing needs before building foundation forms.
The concrete base that you place must be at least four inches deep in the center of the structure. The peripheral of the base must be twice as thick to create eight-inch-thick footers. The additional thickness is necessary to support the earth, the roof, the walls, the blocks and the frame. When laying the foundations, you should consider adding reinforcing bars in your footer along with vertical ties for sturdy walls.
Underground structure – construction of walls.
After the base is placed and cured, you will have to lift the walls of the shelter. The walls can be manufactured with reinforced, dry reinforced concrete bricks and core. You can choose the brick style and size that best suits your needs, but the traditional block measures 8 inches by 8 inches by 16 inches. Be precise in your measurements: it can help you avoid having to cut blocks, which can be cumbersome. You need mortar to put at least the first layer of bricks, even if it is stacked dry.
Always place the corner blocks first and complete the rest after making the corner blocks. The bricks should be square, level and vertical, and perform continuous checks to ensure that their structure is level and square. To create the interior walls and make separate rooms, you can use the concrete blocks in an alternative pattern. The reinforcement bar can be placed inside the block openings to provide more resistance to the structure. As the walls are created, it will leave an opening for a door and an emergency exit.
When the walls are completed, you must establish a temporary roof to be able to add a more permanent structure. You will design a temporary roof with wooden materials so that you can place the concrete and allow it to cure before removing the temporary roof. It is imperative that you put a safety roof in position to protect yourself, as well as those who work on the site with you.
Additional construction measures.
The temporary roof is made up of tables of shapes so that it can hold the concrete that is going to be poured once it makes the armor frame of the roof. Be careful: if you do not set a strong temporary roof and it collapses when the concrete is poured into it, the entire structure will be ruined and your money will be lost. If you are not comfortable with this stage of construction, it may be wise to hire a professional to make sure everything is in place safely and perfectly.
Once the concrete is cured, it is self-sufficient. Your goal is to make the roof of the shelter resist the lateral pressure it must endure to be buried under the ground. As it stands, the roof will collapse because it has a bit of tensile strength and more resistance to compression. Therefore, it is necessary to add reinforcing bars to strengthen the roof. The reinforcing bar is in the form of a grid. The bars bend and turn into concrete walls, which gives strength to the roof and also stronger reinforcement in the walls.
Now is the time to pour the concrete. It may take seven days or more for the concrete to heal. You want to keep the concrete moist so that it heals well and stays strong. Once cured, you can eliminate any temporary support, but this should only be done when you have checked the concrete for cracks or other structural problems.
When building a shelter from the rain, you want to make sure the building offers adequate protection. The walls, floor and ceiling must be fixed to a specific thickness to guarantee protection against radioactive materials. The protection you will need for your shelter is based on hot fall zone guidelines, which require approximately four feet of soil in terms of a minimal form of radiation protection.
Of course, that is the minimum amount, and many of those who build an emergency shelter opt for greater protection. The best materials for shielding include concrete and lead: this is because the material is more difficult to penetrate for some forms of radiation.
Not everyone can afford to invest a lot of money in the construction of a secondary shelter. There are less expensive shelters that will at least offer some protection. Some are as rough as a ditch deeply excavated and covered with earth. Other options include the use of existing structures for security such as a basement.
Regardless of the construction with which you finish working, you must prepare the interior of the shelter and the physical structure itself. There is a tremendous amount of planning that goes into the preparation of the shelter. You will need, at a minimum, enough water and food to survive a two-week period in the shelter, and the more food and water you have, the better. After all, you may have to stay in the shelter for more than a two-week period.
The door of your shelter must be solid, think about the construction and offer superior protection.
When you purchase a door to install in the shelter, you want a door that has a high blasting load rate to ensure it can withstand the waves of an explosion or attack by intruders. The designs of the doors vary and include:
- Double ball gates
- Double leaf swing doors.
- Flat hatches
- Lift hatches
- Ballistic doors of a leaf.
- Hinged doors of a leaf.
The doors mentioned above are sold as concrete-filled options. Normally, the doors are sold with everything you need to install them. They are pre-hung, when appropriate, to facilitate installation, and can handle high-pressure explosions. In addition, the doors are fireproof. After building the shelter, you want the entrance to be hidden: this will ensure that your protection is against intruders during a dangerous event. The shelter must be camouflaged in some way, or at least built in a place that is difficult for others to access or a place that is difficult to find.
Once you have a door in your shelter, you can add furniture. You will have to fill the shelter with dehydrated products, food, hygiene items, batteries and things to entertain you like a small radio, games that work with batteries and books. You can also add a futon to sit on, a small table and beds in separate bunkers.
Do you really need a shelter like that?
Fallout shelters are a structure that can never be used in an emergency situation, but it is definitely good to have one in case a serious situation arises. Some people will also use the shelter for other purposes, to obtain some use of the structure until an emergency occurs.
There are many options, plans and methods to build a protection structure, and choosing which method you want to use depends on the level of protection you want and how much you want to invest in the shelter you plan to build.