The igloo is a domed hut made of snow. Where there is no forest, this building is able to save from the cold of a winter night. And if you build it in the forest, it can survive the whole winter due to its strength. The height of the needle is usually one human height, and the diameter depends on the number of people staying for the night. Skills on how to build a needle should be worked out long before the planned trip to the steppe or tundra, because in the event of extreme circumstances, especially in frosty and windy weather, efficiency is important when building a shelter out of snow.
- Igloo: the house of snow
- 2How to make an igloo out of snow: basic rules
- 3How to make an igloo from the snow with your own hands: material
- 4How to build an igloo from the snow
Igloo: the house of snow
The needle is built from bricks made of compressed snow. Ideally, the shape of the building should be round, since the area of the spherical hut allows to reduce heat loss. In addition, this form gives the strength of the structure, despite the fragile “building material”. If the needle is erected in deep snow, the entrance to it is digging in the ground, and if the depth of snow cover is small, a small corridor is attached to the hut, which protects the building from wind penetration. Warming inside such a dwelling takes place with the help of a candle. The walls will melt a little, but do not melt, forming a thin ice crust from the inside. Needle walls are capable of transmitting light and water vapor.
How to make an igloo out of snow: basic rules
The tools used to build a snow hut are a knife, a saw, a shovel. On occasion, you can use the usual iron bowl. It should be borne in mind that the smaller the size of the home, the warmer it is, so you should not make it too spacious. If the group consists of more than 4-5 people, it is better to build two needles. The gaps between the bricks need to be rubbed with snow. Being inside the needle, you will need to remove the outerwear so as not to sweat. Inside it is advisable to use a waterproof fabric as a litter. To cut blocks, you do not need to go far from the designated site, otherwise you may get tired. You need to find the nearest snowdrift with a height of at least 1 meter, and start cutting. In addition, you must follow the basic rules:
- Needle construction needs to start before dark.
- Rebuilding the shelter is strictly prohibited at night, as well as leaving it at this time of day.
- The entrance must be located on the leeward side.
- Inside the shelter you should always have a shovel or other tool to clear the entrance of snow.
- Care must be taken when raising open fire inside a shelter, as there is a threat of carbon monoxide poisoning.
- You can not take alcohol inside the needle and sleep with the threat of freezing.
- The needle entrance should be located below the floor. This will ensure the stagnation of warm air, the outflow of heavy carbon dioxide and the influx of oxygen.
- Tip: if you build a needle on a slope, you will need to spend less effort on the construction of walls, because you need to build fewer bricks.
How to make a igloo from the snow do it yourself: material
Making bricks from snow depends on its structure. If the crust is hard and durable, a saw (you can use a shovel or a hacksaw) cut blocks a little smaller than a standard gas silicate brick. Usually, the dimensions are 60x40x15, but for the lower row you need to make more blocks for stability. Sleet is difficult to cut, but it is sticky, and you can stick bricks. In order to designate the form, you need to use a rectangular billet, made from any available material. You can do it manually, choosing the size on the eye. Bricks from friable snow are difficult to make without a billet, as it will crumble. The snow fits inside the form, is compacted and moistened. After removing the form blocks in the cold harden. Therefore, you need to make the necessary number of blocks depending on the size of the needle. Cut blocks from a snowdrift from the side where the wind blows. But still the best snow for the construction of a snow shelter is dry snow with a density of 0.25-0.30, which has a uniform structure. Snow of a denser structure has a higher thermal conductivity, weak adhesion and brittleness (at low temperatures).
How to build an igloo from the snow
Before you make a igloo out of the snow with your own hands, you need to designate the area of the building. The knife marks a round area with a diameter of 3 meters, marking its center with a stick. Immediately you need to note the place of entry into the needle. As noted above, it needs to be arranged on the leeward side. But, if the parking is planned for a long time, the entrance is arranged at right angles to the windy side. The circle should be made, if possible, more correct, and not more than three meters, because otherwise the stability of the needle will decrease. After marking the area must be leveled and compacted. The layout of the snow dwelling should be such that the bedding table is located opposite the entrance and above it.
Further, around the perimeter of the snowy platform, it is necessary to tread down a depression to the width of the brick, this will make the foundation more durable. If ice is present on the surface, it should be removed.
There are two ways of laying bricks: ring and spiral. In the first case, the blocks are stacked row by row, in the second, only the bottom row consists of rectangular blocks, and all subsequent blocks are trapezoidal. When spiral laying after the formation of the bottom row, any three bricks are cut diagonally (you can cut any, except those located near the entrance area). The third block is cut to half. Then the laying of the second row begins: the brick is placed in the recess of the third, cut brick, then the next one is laid.
In the lower row are stacked longer and wider snow bricks, with a gap between them to avoid squeezing under the weight of the upper rows. Do not use blocks with defects.
To obtain the desired angle of inclination, you can trim the already laid bricks, or create the desired slope before laying. To prevent the fall of the upper snow bricks and increase their stability, you need to make a bevel between the upper and lower bricks, which is done by cutting the inner corner of the upper brick to fit snugly to the lower one. During laying, each brick is tightly fitted to the next, while the outer wall is gradually processed. All the gaps need to be rubbed with the snow formed during the fit, it plays the role of cement. Around the bottom of the needle you need to build a barrier from the remaining blocks to protect against the wind, which can blow snow between the bricks of the first row.
After that, the gaps inside the needle are sealed, a trench is formed before the entrance with overlapping it with blocks. While it is being formed from the outside by one builder, the second is building a way out to it from the inside. The needle hole in the wall of the needle is carefully cut with a hacksaw. The block cut out at the entrance will have to be moved to the inlet in order not to release heat, to protect from snow drift and wind.
Above the needle, a hole is formed by the vault of the last block row, which needs to be sealed with a wedge-shaped brick. In order for it to close the hole tightly, the size of the brick must be slightly larger than it.
After the needle has been erected, it is necessary to cut holes in its walls for ventilation against the accumulation of carbon dioxide.