The hunting rifle consists of various units and mechanisms, one way or another affecting its ballistic properties. But for fast and accurate shooting, it is still necessary that it is convenient and safe to use..
How to choose a hunting rifle, weight, deflection and shape of the box, pitch, attachment, balance and sights.
For running hunting, a hunting rifle weighing from 2.8 to 3.3 kg is most suitable. This is calculated as follows. The hunting rifle must weigh 1/22 of the hunter’s weight. You can take a heavier hunting rifle for an ambush, weighing up to 1/19 of the hunter’s weight. A lightweight hunting rifle for women and teenagers should weigh 1/25 of the wearer’s weight.
Hunting guns of the 12th caliber mainly weigh 3.0-3.3 kg, of the 16th – 2.8-3.0 kg. If hunting is supposed to be long walking, then a heavy hunting rifle will be burdensome. In general, the hunter, without any tension and fatigue, must throw up his gun twenty times, aiming at the same point, then this is his gun. The length of the box should be selected depending on the length of the arm.
Dependence of the length of the bed of a hunting rifle on the length of the arm.
The vertical perished (steepness) of the box depends on the distance between the clavicle and the shooter’s eye. Measured from the continuation of the sighting line to the front edge of the butt crest (a) and from the continuation of the aiming line to the butt of the butt (b).
Vertical killed hunting rifle lodge.
You can check the correspondence of the vertical camber in a practical way. The shooter aims at any point at a distance of 5-6 meters at eye level. When he takes aim, a match is placed on the bar across the trunk 20 cm from the official cut. If through the match the front sight of the arrow is not visible, then the bend of the box is great for him. If the shooter sees the front sight and part of the bar, then the bend is small. If only a fly is visible through a match, and a pencil put instead of a match closes the fly, then the bend is normal.
Side retraction towards the sighting line depends mainly on the width of the shooter’s chest. For a lean shooter, moving the box to the right will be less. Touching the cheek comb should be monotonous. The subchip protrusion on the butt diverts the shooter’s head from the ridge and thereby eliminates a blow to the cheekbone, allows it to be applied uniformly, and prevents the gun from falling off.
Side retraction of the back plate of the hunting rifle towards the sighting line.
The protrusion must exactly match the lower part of the face, otherwise it will only interfere. For fast shooting, the comb is desirable straight and more complete. If the crest is too high, the cheek will be pressed more tightly, which means it will get a stronger blow. The hunting rifle will be “raised”.
It’s bad if, when shooting, the shooter tilts his head to the right or left of the aiming bar. It is necessary that the leading eye is located along the axis of the bar of the gun. A strong lowering of the crest in the heel is unprofitable. It is desirable that when the head is moved forward and backward along the ridge, the line of sight all the time coincides with the aiming bar (aiming line).
Some clean the front and back of the ridge to get uniform cheek pressure. The comb should not interfere with the displacement of the thumb back when firing a second shot from a double-barreled hunting rifle (with two descents).
Choosing the shape of a hunting rifle box.
The shape of the box can be English (straight), without a protrusion in the lower part of the neck. It is believed that with such a bed, the arrow brush moves more easily to produce a second shot with two descents. There are boxes with a ledge and soft outlines – this is a semi-pistol box. At a box with a pistol-shaped neck, the protrusion steeply drops down. At its end there is an oval platform with an attached outlet.
In a rational lodge (according to the Steingold method), the ridge is calculated and constructed according to a curve, depending on the inclination of the head. A kind of rational lodge is a bed with a crest (with a fracture). First, the ridge is built parallel to the sighting line, and then its rear part goes down. In a Monte Carlo type box, the ridge is stepped. The crest has an excess of wood. The shooter himself drives the box under himself.
Pitch – the angle between the continuation of the aiming plate and the butt plate.
If the butt to the toe will be longer than to the heel, then when throwing the trunks will be directed higher. Conversely, a protrusion in the butt of the butt fixes the position of the butt in the shoulder. The butt plate may be made of plastic, rubber or steel. For successful shooting in the winter and autumn / spring, it is advisable to have removable backplates. For winter – thinner, taking into account warm clothing.
Pitch is expressed in linear measures. If the trunks (on the aiming plate) are located at an angle of 90 degrees to the back of the butt plate, the pitch is zero, with the ends of the trunks down, the pitch is negative. And when the trunks deviate from the vertical up, the pitch is positive. The normal value for a universal hunting rifle with trunks up to 720 mm in length is considered to be a negative pitch of approximately 3 cm.
To adjust the pitch, you must take into account the shooting conditions, that is, the height of the appearance of the target. If the shooting is generally assumed to be below the head (at the beast), the pitch should be negative, i.e. the trunks are tilted down. When hunting feathers (with a gundog), the pitch can be even zero.
The accuracy of the hunting rifle, the choice and features of the shape of the forearm.
The rigidity of the gun affects not only the convenience of fast shooting. It has been experimentally established that the displacement of the gun with an unapproved bed or due to the design features of the gun by the time the projectile leaves the muzzle is about 8 mm. It is not so small. The final recoil of the shotgun can be up to 26 mm.
The length of the neck of the box should provide a shift of the hand back to produce a second shot (with two descents). If a hunting rifle with one trigger, a pistol-shaped neck is preferable. The position of the right hand will be constant and steady. The cross section of the neck of the box should be oval. The neck of the lodge has a circumference of 12–13 cm. With a circumference of less than 11 cm, the neck can spring, and the hunting rifle will begin to “lower” when firing.
The forearm is preferable volume, with a constant cross-section, which will provide better girth and control of the gun. The length of the forearm should allow you to shift the left hand, depending on the length of the hands of the shooter and the type of clothing. For example, in a winter thick jacket, so that the gun does not “height”, it is desirable to move the left hand brush closer to the block. The length of the forearm must be at least 23-25 cm.
A shotgun with a longer barrel has a longer aiming bar, so from such a gun it is possible to aim more accurately at a target over a long distance. Reducing the trunks throwing (which the shooter perceives worse than returning back to the shoulder) contributes to a deeper landing of trunks in the block. Rubber shock absorbers and muzzle slotted brakes also soften recoil.
The muzzle compensator improves the stability of the gun during recoil. Muzzle brake reduces recoil, reduces muzzle pressure. Gases hit the lateral surfaces of the crossbars and create a force pulling the barrel forward. In addition, gases flying sideways from the cracks create a reactive force that reduces recoil by 25-30%.
Sighting bar and sights of a hunting rifle.
A wide aiming plate allows you to quickly and accurately fix the hunting rifle before firing. Cross cut excludes glare in the sun. The ventilated bar is less heated by shots, so the distortion from the mirage is reduced. When shooting at a long distance, bullets from a smoothbore gun are equipped with sights. It can be a rear sight with a slot and adjustable lifting height, an optical sight, a diopter, a collimator sight, a ring sight.
For a quick shot and an instant mark of shooting, it is important that the gun is familiar, otherwise the mark of shooting at a rapidly moving beast will not work. The butt crest should lie under the cheekbone of the right cheek. This means that optical and collimator sights for instant shooting are not quite suitable, since they are all installed with the bracket at a certain height above the trunks.
When throwing up, the butt is pressed to the lower jaw, and so that the eye can aim through the sight on the bracket with the cheek pressed to the butt, you need to raise the butt comb. Therefore, some companies supply overhead combs. Without this, a quick jump and an instant shot is very difficult to do. Changing the weight of the gun due to the installation of the sight, balance, and posture will also interfere with the habitually fast and correct throw.
It should also be borne in mind that the light metal pads glare, this scares away cautious birds and animals, and also destroys the holistic perception of the overall shape of the gun. For the best aiming abroad, sets of colored flies are produced that facilitate aiming not only during the day, but also at dusk..
Hunting rifle fuse, balance and balance.
The fuse can be automatic or non-automatic. For animal hunting, a non-automatic fuse is better, since there may not be enough time to manipulate it. For the convenience of controlling the gun, it is important that it be maneuverable, that is, most of the weight of the gun would be concentrated between the hands of the shooter, and the ends of the gun would be as light as possible. The guns are judged according to the hit ratio. It is defined like this.
The weight of the receiver with the butt is divided by the weight of the trunks with the forearm. Well, if this coefficient is equal to one. You can judge the posadosti and other criteria. Withdrawn trunks with the forearm, the center of gravity should be at a distance of 11-12 cm from the breech.
For shooting, the balance of the gun is also important. For rifles of the highest class, the center of gravity is located 45–50 mm from the official cut, and for ordinary rifles – 65–75 mm. If the center of gravity is located 80 mm from the official cut, then shooting at moving targets from such a gun will be difficult, the gun may “lower”.
The balance indicator is defined as the ratio of the weight of the gun to the weight of the trunks. For a double-barreled shotgun it is usually equal to 2.0-2.3, for a double-barreled barrel – 1.8-1.96, for a choke – 1.75-1.8. The lower the balance, the more difficult it is to shoot offhand at moving targets.
The advantages of hunting rifles with a vertical arrangement of trunks and a single-trigger mechanism.
Rifles with a vertical arrangement of trunks have a better view of targets, a hunting rifle does not have lateral deviations when firing, when shooting from a lower barrel, there is less tossing of trunks up. Such a hunting rifle is stronger, less loose.
The main advantage of the single-trigger mechanism is that when shooting at a rapidly moving target, the hunter can quickly fire a second shot without distraction. Without transferring a finger from one descent to another. At the same time, a stable position of the gun is maintained and the advantages of the pistol neck of the lodge are more fully utilized.
Based on the materials of the book “Fishing tackle and do-it-yourself hunting equipment. Production and repair “.