Any firearm needs proper care. Everyone knows this, but not many have an idea of how to clean the gun correctly, what tools and lubricants to use. Unfortunately, ignorance of the rules and the sequence of care can end badly for the system and individual parts of the gun.
- Causes of hunting weapon pollution
- 2 Criteria indications for cleaning
- 3 How and how to clean a smooth-bore gun, the necessary fixtures
- 4How to properly clean a gun: step by step instructions
- 5How to clean the gun from rust, leading and copper coating
Causes of hunting weapon pollution
The first cause of pollution is carbon residue left after a shot from a rifle. It is formed during the combustion of smoky powders at the time of the shot. If you do not remove the smoke in time, there is a risk that it will turn into growths and use a gun will be impossible. In addition, carbon deposits tend to attract moisture, due to which rust can later form.
A professional hunter uses weapons regularly, therefore contact of a gun with dust, dirt, moisture, which are constant companions in the forest and other terrain, is not excluded. If there is no time for proper care, clean the barrel itself. This is the most vulnerable spot of the gun, because all the time exposed to gunpowder and hot gases. There is no universal rule for everyone how to properly clean a hunting rifle, but even a novice must know the basic principles of this procedure.
Criteria indications for cleaning
Opinions on how often to clean the gun diverge. Some people believe that too frequent cleaning will damage the inner chrome layer and leave scratches. This theory has not been confirmed, therefore it is recommended to clean the hunting rifle in the following situations:
- weapons do not use for a long time. In this case, cleaning is recommended once a month;
- after the shooting, and the barrel must be cleaned after each shot;
- immediately after purchase to get rid of factory lubricants;
- after the close of the hunting season, before hiding;
- after each use, even if only a few rounds were fired;
- after moisture and impurities get into the gun;
- after hunting, whether a gun was used independently or not.
You can leave a gun unpolished for no more than a day, since corrosion begins to appear already after 2-3 hours after the shooting. These easy-to-remember rules will help save the life of your weapon for a long time.
How and what to clean smooth-bore gun, the necessary fixtures
If you are not an expert in choosing care products, it is better to consult a more experienced friend or consultant in the store. Completion kit for the care of a gun, it does not matter whether it is hunting or sports, may be different. It depends on the manufacturer, but some professional shooters ignore standard rules and select funds based on their experience and preferences. Also, differences in tools and materials may depend on the type of weapon, model, etc. The standard set includes:
- wooden or aluminum ramrod, consisting of 2-3 segments for cleaning and lubrication of the barrel. Components are screwed to it: cherries and brushes;
- Iron brush for cleaning deposits, metal particles and rust. Ruffs are bristle, spiral and down-padded coats. The most durable in the operational plan are tools or bronze or brass;
- brass brush with bristles for applying alkali based lubricants;
- Vycher – special tools with holes to hold rags. Screws screwed on Shomol;
- brushes for cleansing from dirt and dust;
- wooden skewers for removing dirt in hard to reach places.
Along with the tools, we buy lubricants, oils that are neutral for processing carbines and shotguns, alkaline for barrels, and sprays for handling weapons.
Used as a rifle paste. It acts as a neutralizer of the active products of the combustion of gunpowder, removes soot and fights against corrosion, restores the gloss of varnished and metal surfaces. However, due to the fact that pastes contain abrasive particles, careless use can lead to damage to the bore. It is better to use pastes in the most neglected cases when other means fail.
There are additional tools for the care of weapons: pencils for chemical blackening, wax, solvents, impregnation for the care of wooden parts, etc. You can combine the funds at your discretion, the main correctness and phased implementation of the manipulations themselves.
In addition to the above devices, you can purchase a special stand for the gun and other accessories. You will also need a flat, well-lit surface.
How to clean a gun: step by step instructions
Before cleaning the smooth-bore gun it is necessary to carry out preparatory measures:
- defuse the gun and check before cleaning, remove foliage and visible dirt;
- if you brought a shotgun from the cold, you must allow it to lie down at room temperature for 3-4 hours to prevent condensation;
- the weapon is always cleaned from the chamber to the barrel. The movement of the cleaning tool should only be in one direction. During the cleaning process, solid particles are always formed, which must be quickly removed;
- tools and bore during cleaning should be dry;
- The cleaning rod should be soft coated, preferably with plastic or wood. Do not use metal ramrod, especially with an aluminum coating;
- alkaline lubricants are applied on the surfaces with which the powder gases are in contact outside and inside the barrel;
- weapons are cleaned in a well-ventilated area, because cleaning compounds are highly toxic and volatile. In order not to damage the surface of the table with chemical components of the lubricant, it is better to cover the working surface with newspapers in 5-6 layers;
- cuts of cleaning cloth are used only once and forever thrown away.
After preparation, you can proceed directly to the cleaning process.
- Depending on the type of gun, the barrel is broken or dismantled. If the gun is just purchased, and you do not know how to do it, look at the manufacturer’s instructions.
- Alkaline grease or spray is applied to the inside of the barrel from the breech side. For half an hour the weapon is fixed in an upright position. In a similar way, other parts that are affected by the powder gases are lubricated.
- After the lubricant passes through the entire trunk and is drained at the muzzle, wipe it with a cloth and a viseher.
- A metal brush is screwed onto the cleaning rod that corresponds to the diameter of the bore and with its help the internal cavity of the barrel is cleaned several times. Thus, the lead is removed, provoking the rapid appearance of corrosion. Do not back and forth. Cleaning is carried out only in one direction, otherwise the trunk may be damaged.
- The brush also takes the place of cherries with a rag. With its help, all internal dirt is cleaned until all the remaining lead is removed. If after 3-4 manipulations the traces do not disappear, you can moisten the fabric with kerosene or turpentine and repeat the procedure.
- A bristle brush, moistened with grease, is screwed into place. Lubricant is evenly distributed throughout the bore.
- External elements of the weapon are also cleaned of dirt and dust with a brush and wiped with a cloth slightly moistened with oil.
- Wooden parts are wiped with wood-based compounds.
- Upon completion of cleaning, check for the presence of grease on the tree of the box and forearm, if it has been absorbed into them.
- The cleaned gun is collected, packed and sent to the safe for storage.
After cleaning, all tools except the cleaning rod are washed in warm running water and soap, to completely wash away the solid particles. Then it is well dried, folded and put away in a place specially reserved for them.
The rifle – a rifle to be cleaned from the treasury, but the semiautomatic can be cleaned from the barrel. The procedure is the same as in the care of a smooth-bore gun.
How to clean the gun from rust, leading and copper coating
The formation of rust or other aggressive plaque more adversely affects the performance of a rifled barrel than smoothbore. In addition to corrosion, the steel surface may be damaged by lead-in or copper coating. The greater the initial velocity of the bullet, the faster the formation of deposits that negatively affect the battle of the gun. To eliminate such unnecessary education is impossible, but you can significantly reduce the speed of their appearance. To do this, you need to properly and regularly protect and clean the weapon. The rifle must be cleaned after each shooting process. Before shooting, it is recommended to thoroughly wipe the trunks of grease.
Rust can be avoided by timely wiping the gun off moisture, dew, precipitation, condensate, etc. Corrosion spots are eliminated by cleaning with metal brushes and brushes soaked in dehydrated kerosene or another solvent. Old rust and damage to the large surface of the trunk is removed as follows:
- on the one hand they tightly plug the trunk with a wooden stopper;
- dehydrated kerosene is poured from the other hole;
- the second hole is also capped;
- one day later, the kerosene is drained and the barrel is cleaned with a brush.
If rust is left, the barrel is refilled with dehydrated kerosene and left for 24. At the end of this time, the cleaning procedure is repeated. Such manipulations are carried out 3-4 times, until the rust disappears completely.
Rust, which appeared outside the trunk, is removed by kerosene compresses. Such processing is effective, but very harmful for weapons, so it is better not to launch it to a deplorable state. To protect the gun from the formation of corrosion, you can use medical adhesive BF-2 or any other waterproof.
- Outside, the gun is washed with a strong and hot soda solution.
- With the help of a cleaning rod and a nozzle with a powder puff, the barrel is washed with the same water.
- A rag dipped in glue is used to treat the necessary places outside and, if necessary, also inside. You can apply 2-3 layers, waiting until the previous one dries.
This protection lasts up to two years, depending on the frequency of use of the weapon. It is important that after the soda bath do not touch the gun with your bare hands, so as not to leave greasy marks on the surface.
Clean the gun from leading so that the barrel does not corrode. Barrel with a rough surface due to shells or rust, lead a lot faster. Smooth-bore guns are brushed with a metal wire brush of thin wire or a spiral wire nozzle. If the lead moves off badly, change the oil to turpentine. By using plastic containers or wrapping a piece of paper, lead-cutting can be reduced.
In a rifle, the cleaning of the sealing is done tightly wound on a ramrod with tow soaked in turpentine. The procedure is repeated until the plaque is no longer on the material. Strongly leaded barrel is pre-cleaned with a brass brush. After cleaning, the gun is wiped as after normal shooting.
Copper plating and silver plating are eliminated with a solution of:
- ammonium sulphate 28 g;
- ammonium carbonate 13 g;
- ammonia solution (ammonia water) 170 g;
- distilled water 100 g
First, mix the first two components, then the last two components. The liquid components are added to the powders and stirred well. Sulphate and ammonium carbonate must first be crushed into smaller pieces.
Before cleaning, the bore is cleaned, degreased and dried. The barrel from the side of the chamber is closed with a rubber stopper, and a rubber tube of such length is put on the barrel so that 4-6 cm of the rubber tube is left above the muzzle cut. After that, the prepared solution is poured into the barrel at a distance of approximately 3 cm above the muzzle and left for half an hour. Blue solution indicates that copper is dissolved.
Careful attitude to the gun will extend its service life and it will not let you down at the crucial moment.