# How to determine the direction of the world without a compass. How to know the directions of the world without a compass

It happens that during travel the compass and map are lost, and the terrain is unfamiliar. To get to the nearest settlement, you need to navigate, which way to go. How to determine the sides of the world without a compass? In fact, there are a lot of such methods, the main thing is to be able to use them, and turn on your observation.

• Side of the world without a compass: ways
• 2 Determining the sides of the world without a compass by the sun
• 3How to know the directions of the world without a compass by the moon and stars
• 4How to find the sides of the world without a compass on natural phenomena

## Side of the world without a compass: ways

Determining the directions of the world is not an easy task, it requires attention and some patience.

## Determining the sides of the world without a compass by the sun

During the day, one of the most accurate ways is orientation by the sun with the help of a mechanical clock located horizontally across the ground. At noon, when the hour hand points at twelve o’clock, the sun is in the south. During the time when the hour hand makes two turns on the dial, the sun makes one in the sky. A simple calculation shows that for the same period of time, the star shifts by an angle that is two times smaller than the hour hand. Thus, if you plot a bisector that points to the star between the clock hand and the division equal to 12 hours, then this twelve o’clock mark, as before, will indicate the south direction. The position of the sun before noon should be calculated on the dial on the left side, after noon – on the right. You should take into account the decree time when navigating by the clock, i.e. the error is about 10 degrees: in the summer, the calculation is based on the number 1, and in the winter – division by the number 2.

This method is most effective when used in middle and northern latitudes, especially in winter. It is less accurate in spring and autumn, and it is better not to use it in summer due to the fact that the sun is too high, which leads to large calculation errors (25 degrees or more).

If there is no mechanical watch on hand, you can use a sundial. The method consists in determining the sides of the world by the shadow cast from the linear object:

1. To do this, insert a stick into the ground so that it casts a clear shadow.
2. Mark the first mark on the ground where the shadow of the stick ends.
3. After about 20 minutes, the shadow will move some distance, this will be the place for the second mark.
4. It is necessary to connect the two resulting labels with a straight line; this will result in an east-west axis. High stick more accurately determines the direction.
5. You must stand in such a way that the first label is on the left and the second on the right. Thus, you will face north exactly, to the right will be east, and to the left westward. This concerns the determination of the sides of the northern hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere the shadow will point to the south, to the left will be west, and on the right hand – east.

The easiest way, by analogy with the methods listed above, is as follows: it is necessary to stand with your back exactly at noon towards the direction of sunlight, to open your hands to the right and to the left. The falling shadow will indicate the north direction, behind will be south, on the right hand – east, on the left hand – west. Do not forget that, in the southern hemisphere, the falling shadow, on the contrary, indicates the southern direction.

Orientation by the sun is possible even after its sunset: on summer nights, with respect to northern latitudes, from a close location to the horizon of a incoming luminary, the northern side of the sky becomes lighter and the southern side becomes darker.

## How to know the directions of the world without a compass by the moon and stars

Orientation on the moon and analogue clock is carried out similarly to solar orientation. To use this method, you first need to determine the corrections to the readings of the clock: mentally divide the radius of the full disk of the Moon into four equal parts and estimate how many of them are in the diameter of its visible part. These parts (phases) are: full moon, at which the disk of the moon is visible from sunset to dawn; visible half of the disk, then one quarter of it and three quarters of the lunar disk. If the lunar disk is not visible, then a new moon phase has arrived.

On the clock you need to notice the time, then take away or add hours. So, with the Moon growing, when its right side is visible, i.e. one second disk, this number is subtracted from the time shown on the clock. In the descending phase of the moon, i.e. with its left side visible (three quarters), the required number is added to the hour of observation. The number obtained by adding or subtracting will indicate the hour when the Sun appears at the place of the Moon. After that, you need to navigate through it, finding the southern direction. Direct to the moon with the need to divide the watch dial. This method is similar to the orientation of the sun and analogue clock. Thus, it is necessary to direct the division of the hour dial corresponding to the calculated hour value (but not the hour hand) to the lunar disk, to find the north-south line as the bisector of the angle between this line and the one that corresponds to the true noon time.

To memorize what needs to be done – to subtract or add, you need to imagine the moon horn in the form of the letter “C”. It should be added to the time on the clock number of hours equal to the number of divisions on the light surface of the body. If the horn forms a shape opposite to the letter “C”, this quantity should be subtracted.

A simpler way is one in which the lunar disk must be in the first or last quarter. In this case, 1/4 of the lunar disk is visible, it happens on the seventh-eighth or 22-23 day after the new moon. To find the southern direction, you must connect both ends of the moon horn with an imaginary straight line, extending it to the horizon. In relation to the southern hemisphere, this point will point north. If it is not in the phase of the new moon, when the two luminaries are lined up in one row, then they are located east or west of each other. Reflecting sunlight, the bright lunar surface indicates the direction of the sun to the east or west, respectively. The line connecting both ends of the lunar disk is perpendicular to the east-west line, which means it indicates the north-south direction.

A full lunar disk, like the sun, rises in the east, and sets in the west.

If the night is clear, the full moon shines very brightly, illuminating objects on the ground while casting a clear shadow. You can use a method similar to determining the position of the sun while casting shadows from a stick stuck into the ground.

For the northern hemisphere, you can use the following methods of finding the cardinal directions by the stars:

• It is necessary to find the Polar Star, which is located at the end of the so-called “dipper” of the Little Bear. If you look directly at the bright Polar Star, there will be south behind, to the right east, and to the left – west.
• Orientation of the constellation Southern Cross (in the southern hemisphere), indicating the direction to the south.

## How to find the sides of the world without a compass on natural phenomena

If you observe certain natural phenomena, you can also find the right side of the world. This is a rather subjective method, but it is often very accurate, especially if you put together several factors.

1. If you watch the anthills, you will notice that they are all located on the south side of the tree. At the same time its gentle slope is in the south, and steep – in the north.
2. Moss and lichen always cover the northern part of tree trunks, stones, stumps and other forest objects.
3. If the summer day is hot, you can see that droplets of resin protrude from the south side of the conifer tree.
4. Surely everyone knows that in spring the birds head north and fall in the south. You can watch the mass flight to determine the direction of the world.
5. Mushrooms usually grow on the north side of the tree at its roots.
6. If you are in the field, you can find sunflowers. They always turn east to flower.
7. In summer, large forest boulders are moistened from the northern part more than from the southern one.
8. If you find a cut stump, it is worth looking at the rings of its slice: they are always more tilted to the north.

These observations will help to orient in the summer, spring or autumn in the forest and find the right side of the world. Other methods should be used in winter.