The success of finding settlements and people in an emergency depends on many reasons. This is the ability to navigate the terrain, find the road, correctly detect signs indicating the presence of people, read and decode traces.
How to find the right road in an unfamiliar area, what to do if you get lost in the forest, find the road and exit to people in an emergency or emergency.
Naturally, the problem of access to people will not be so difficult if you know in which area, at least approximately, you are. The terrain is not alien to you in natural terms, that is, you are in your natural and climatic zone.
or even a simple scheme, the direction of movement can be determined approximately. To do this, we need to remember at what time, on which side the moon, the sun, on which cheek the wind blew, whether it was then constant. The distance covered is calculated by multiplying the average speed by the time of movement.
It is necessary to recall all the significant landmarks encountered on the way cliffs, hills, lakes, streams, rivers. Then the direction, distances and landmarks must be sequentially linked to the map. This is usually enough to find out your location. In the presence of a compass and in mountainous terrain, the location is found by the method of inverse serifs. But all these methods are good only when there is a map, a compass in the group of travelers, and they know how to use them..
In practice, in emergency situations people often find themselves completely not adapted to such conditions, who do not have a map, a compass and find themselves in an unusual place for them thousands of kilometers from familiar places and even climatic zones. If it is completely impossible to determine your location, you need to move downstream of the first river that comes across. The larger it is, the more likely it is to meet people near it. Almost all cities, towns, villages and farms have access to water.
Large rivers are navigable, shallow rivers are used by the local population to transport goods on boats and boats. Most hunting huts are most often built on the banks of rivers and lakes or in the immediate vicinity. Therefore, the path down the river will almost always lead to people. You can find the road or the nearest village using the overview. To do this, periodically climb the elevated points of the terrain, climb trees and look around. The presence of people can be indicated by lights, smoke, taking off and landing planes and helicopters, clearings, mowing, power poles, various artificial structures.
Flat visibility at night.
Electric torch from 1.5 to 4 km.
Bonfire for 8-10 km.
Headlights of cars for 10 km.
The glow of the big city for 50-60 km.
Flat day visibility.
People are visible for 1.5 km..
Detached trees, pillars from 2 to 3 km, detached houses for 5 km.
Factory chimneys for 6-8 km, and smoke in some cases for 60 km.
Large buildings for 9-10 km.
Settlement for 11-15 km.
Churches, high towers and elevators for 16-20 km.
Sensitivity of vision can be increased due to deep, calm breathing, rubbing the face and nape with snow or cold water. With intense attention, the sensitivity of vision increases by 1.5-2 times. With any distracting noise, extraneous thoughts, impatient cries of others, this sensitivity is significantly reduced. Listening to sounds can also help to find people, and the village, and the road, and the railway..
Such sound direction finding by a person is possible with sufficiently high accuracy from 3 to 5 degrees. Having heard a sound that is not very clear, you need to quickly turn to face it and do not move to listen, and when you repeat, detect its direction with some natural landmark, and if there is a compass, then take the azimuth at it. At night, in the direction of the sound, you need to observe for some time, preferably from a hill of relief or a tree, as it is possible to see any lights or a glow over the village.
Audibility of various sounds.
The sound of oars and the creak of oarlocks are heard in about 300 m.
Cutting or sawing a tree is audible for 0.5 km.
Inaudible cry of a man for 1 km.
Shotguns, dogs barking, horse bellowing, a car signal can be heard for 2-3 km.
The sound of a working tractor is heard for 3-4 km.
A diesel locomotive or a steep whistle is heard for 7-10 km.
The noise of a running train is heard over 10 km.
An explosion at a quarry is heard over 12-15 km.
Determining the proximity of a settlement by the state of a trail or road.
When approaching the settlement, the forest path becomes wider, more trodden and on it branches, parking places are more common. When removing, the opposite picture is observed. Going out onto the forest road, you should pay attention to how the lost logs lie on it. As a rule, they lie on the sidelines of the Komlem (wide base) towards the village, as they are driven forward by car.
The exit of road and horse-drawn vehicles from the fields and forest plots to the country road is usually directed to the village. When approaching a settlement, the road usually becomes more bumpy and broken. Fresh traces of cars and horse-drawn vehicles and people, as a rule, in the morning lead from housing, and in the evening to housing. Roads and trails most often fork on the way from the village and converge when approaching it.
In the tundra and desert, a trail of domestic animals of deer, rams, camels can be brought to the shelter, it is only necessary by the print of the hooves to establish which direction the herd, the herd, have gone. To understand which direction a car or a cart has gone, one must carefully examine the traces left by it. For example, funnel-like swirls at the bottom of the track are directed by sharp angles in the direction of movement. Sand, dust, dirt lie along the slopes of the gauge in the form of a fan, opened in the opposite direction from the direction of movement.
The ends of crushed branches, sticks, twigs are turned towards transport. When moving through a puddle, the tracks dry out in the direction of movement. Lumps of dirt caught in the tread of a car or wheel rim become smaller as you move away from the puddle. There are always more shreds of hay on roadside bushes and overhanging branches from the side from where they brought him. And since they are most often driven to a settlement, then we have to go that way. Although it sometimes happens that hay is brought to feed wild ungulates in the depths of the forest.
A skier strayed into the woods can be brought to a dwelling by a random ski track. But for this it is necessary to be able to determine the direction of movement of the skier who passed here. The imprint of the plane of the ski stick ring is sometimes tilted in the direction of movement. Accordingly, lumps of snow ejected by a ski stick ring are directed in the direction of movement. The groove in the snow from the sharp end of the stick is longer in the direction of movement, since when lifting the stick out of the snow for some time it wanders through the snow.
The imprint of narrow cross-country skiing, the large distances between the pits from the ski poles, the use of high-speed driving techniques all indicate that a man walked here lightly. It can be a training athlete or a rest. In this case, in order to get to the house on a fresh track, in the evening you need to go in the direction of travel, in the morning in the opposite direction. A deep, well-designed ski track, a large number of prints of ski poles and a small distance between them, the characteristic prints of wide hunting or hiking skis, traces of frequent halt indicate that a group of tourists passed here.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.