The ability to make fire without matches or lighters is invaluable, especially when exposed to extreme conditions of survival. Different circumstances can cause the match to dampen, and the lighter is lost or it runs out of gas. In this case, it can save fire from friction and hunger by friction, despite the fact that this process is very laborious and lengthy. About how to make fire without matches (friction), they knew even in ancient times, because there were no other ways to warm up, to protect themselves from animals at night and to cook the food they got.
- How to get fire by friction: methods
- 2Making friction: process technology
- 3Fire firing: other methods
How to get fire by friction: methods
There are two basic ways to make a fire by friction:
- Method using a hand drill.
To do this, you need: the base and the core of dry wood, tinder, material for ignition. At the base, you need to make a groove where the friction will be made with a wooden rod. From this groove one more is taken away, coals and other products of friction will come out of it. After that, a rod made of solid wood is installed in the groove. Friction of the rod on the base is made by rotating it with hands around its axis, resulting in coals. After that, the embers need to be moved to a previously prepared tinder, and when the flame is engaged, move to another material for igniting the fire (logs, branches, etc.).
- With the use of a bow drill.
The principle of operation is similar to the previous ignition, with the only difference that a retainer is attached to the top of the rod, allowing it to rotate more quickly without hurting the hands, the danger of which occurs when using a hand drill. This is a more efficient way.
Fire friction: process technology
Before making a fire, you need to prepare a tinder, collect firewood, prepare a nest for coal, make a bow with a drill and prepare a wooden base.
Dry fibrous material is used as tinder: moss, villi from clothes, bird feathers and down, wooden thin chips. For firewood, it is necessary to gather thin dry twigs, which can be found in the dead, the lower tier of trees. The branches lying on the ground, most likely, damp and wet, it will be difficult for them to flare up. Green wood should be avoided; it burns badly. A tinder bundle needs to be wrapped with a more dense material, such as leaves or dry grass. At the same time, it is necessary to leave a recess for coal and openings for air ventilation.
The next step is the manufacture of onions, for which you need to choose a solid, elastic wood. After a suitable material has been found, a bow is made 30-60 cm long. It must be a thin, light rod, not too curved and at the same time rigid enough so that it does not bend during rotation. For the manufacture of bowstrings used lace, rope, string, which is attached to the bow so that it is slightly sagging.
For the base you need to prepare a dry wooden board. For its production you need to choose a light and soft wood. Its length should be 30–32 cm, width 5–8 cm, thickness 2.5 cm. Next, a drill of at least 20 cm in length is made, the diameter of which should be 2–4 cm. The lower end of the drill should be made round and the upper one pointed .
For the spindle you need to make the upper support of stone or wood. The stone should fit comfortably in your hand, not be too small. It should have a notch and smooth edges. You can make a support block out of wood using hard rock by drilling a hole approximately to the middle of the block with a knife.
The support must be such that the spindle rotates freely around its axis, while maintaining a stable position of the narrow end. To make the upper end less abrade, you can lubricate the hole in the block with resin.
Based on the need to make a mark where the wooden drill will spin. Then drill a hole in this place with a diameter equal to the diameter of the spindle and a depth of about 5 mm. Under it is cut a hole for tinder.
After that, you need to burn a hole:
- The wooden base is placed on a flat piece of land.
- Left foot to stand on the ground at a distance of 2-3 cm from the funnel. The second leg is bent at the knee behind.
- Use your left hand to hold the spindle, hold the bow in your right hand.
- The bowstring of the bow should be twisted with a loop on the upper, pointed end of the rod so that it does not create too much tension. If it is difficult to tighten, you need to loosen the string.
- The rounded end of the spindle is inserted into the hole on the base, on top of it adheres the support block.
- You need to take at one end of the bow, and begin to rotate the spindle around its axis, pressing its lower end to the base.
- If done correctly, a black ember will form around the drill and smoke will appear.
Then you need to make a chimney: from the edge of the newly formed burnt funnel, you need to cut through a V-shaped hole, not reaching the middle of the funnel. As the spindle rotates, coals are formed that will fall through this hole. From below it is necessary to put a flat base for collecting embers, for this purpose a flat sliver will do.
After that, they proceed to laying out firewood as follows: they are laid at a right angle with gaps between the rods for air circulation in the order of tinder – kindling – fuel. At the same time, kindling is placed not on the surface of the earth, but on a bed of leaves or dry branches. You should also leave a hole for laying the coal inside.
Now again you need to twist the drill on the base to get the charcoal, gradually increasing the rotation speed. Coals through the hole will fall on the tinder, which will soon smoke. An indication that they are formed will be a darkening, reddening or lightening of the tinder. Then you need to carefully remove the board, support the embers with air (with a stroke or a gentle blow), gradually surrounding them with a tinder. When the first flames appear, the burning tinder should be placed in the hole of the prepared kindling, to inflate the fire.
The main error in the method of making fire with bow is that inexperienced tourists place their kindling material in the immediate vicinity of the friction site, hoping that it will light up on its own. They do not take into account the fact that in this case there will be only smoke, and for the appearance of fire it is necessary to place the coals in the kindling material, inflating it.
Building fire by friction: other methods
In addition to using a hand or bow drill, there are several other methods for producing fire by the friction method:
- It will take an ordinary nail and a die that needs to be driven in. You need to do this for a few minutes, turning the nail at the same time around its axis. It will heat up enough to burn a tinder.
- From pine need to make a small base with splitting. The tinder is placed there in such a way that there is not much space under the plank. Next, you need to find a rope, it is better if it is from natural fiber. It is necessary to take it at both ends and start “cutting” a wooden plank from the bottom with quick movements. When smoke appears, it must be inflated, receiving fire.
- The easiest way: between two dry wooden plates is placed a piece of cotton, and they begin to rub against each other. After a few minutes, the wool will smoke.