In order not to return from the forest with an empty basket, it is important to know which mushrooms grow there and at what time, as well as how to pick mushrooms. In each type of forest, their mushrooms grow, and their composition varies depending on the season..
How to pick mushrooms, cut them with a knife or twist them out of the soil, when to go pick mushrooms, how to navigate, so as not to get lost in the forest, protection against ticks.
Some mushrooms are very demanding on their surroundings. Like, for example, a larch oiler, which is found only under larch trees. But there are unpretentious, growing everywhere, in a wide variety of conditions. There are mushrooms bearing fruit only in a certain, rather short period. Such as spring morels or greens and rowan grasses encountered in late autumn.
Other mushrooms bear fruit throughout almost the entire mushroom season. Boletus, for example, or meadow mushrooms can be found from late spring to late autumn. For a successful mushroom hunt, you need to know not only the appearance, but also the environmental characteristics of certain types of mushrooms.
In addition to the necessary knowledge, to collect mushrooms, of course, a basket and a knife will be required. It is strongly discouraged to pick mushrooms in buckets, cans and plastic bags, because without air access they quickly deteriorate. There is no consensus on how best to pick mushrooms — cut them with a knife or twist them out of the soil..
What is the best way to pick mushrooms, cut them with a knife or twist from the soil.
Some say that when cutting with a knife, the mycelium is less damaged. Therefore, it is better to cut mushrooms. Others claim that the part of the leg remaining in the ground causes it to rot. Therefore, it is better to twist the mushrooms. However, everyone agrees that the main thing is not to damage the mycelium.
Probably, when picking fruit bodies of mushrooms, it will be correct to be guided by common sense. Mushrooms that are easily separated from the soil – ceps, aspen, boletus – it is better to twist.
Mushrooms with a brittle leg, for example, russula or throat, can simply be carefully broken at the base, but dense mushrooms that sit firmly in the soil are best cut off. Because they break poorly and are taken out of the soil with a large piece of soil. Wood mushrooms, such as mushrooms and oyster mushrooms, are also more convenient to cut with a knife, so it would be better to take it with you.
It must be remembered that there is little benefit from careful removal of the mushroom. If at the same time to stir up the entire forest litter in its vicinity, trying to find other mushrooms nearby. The damage to the mycelium from this will be much greater than from a carelessly picked mushroom. Those who pick mushrooms with a stick can be advised: raised the foliage – lower it into place. Do not be like animals that leave everything behind.
When to go pick mushrooms, how to navigate, so as not to get lost in the forest.
Mushrooms usually go to the forest early in the morning. Of course, the mushrooms themselves do not care when they are in the basket, but there are other reasons, for example:
Beat the rest of the mushroom pickers.
Get out of the woods before midday heat or until dark. If you go too far or get lost.
Time to process mushrooms on the day of collection.
In order not to get lost in the forest, you need to remember the route traveled, adhere to forest roads and clearings. In clear weather, navigate the sun. In cloudy weather, it is recommended to use signs to determine the position of the north.
For example, an anthill usually stands on the south side of a tree, while moss and lichen grow on its north side. However, this is true only for homogeneous forests without clearings and marked relief. On hilly terrain or near glades, anthills may well be located on that side of the tree, where it is warmer and lighter, not necessarily from the south.
Regarding forest signs, we can say that the north determines the compass best of all, and today it is not a deficit. However, signs and a compass are useless if you do not know in which direction to leave the forest. Therefore, you need to start orienting in advance, and not when you are already lost.
Before entering the forest, you need to figure out the general direction of movement in order to approximately imagine where to go if you forgot the way back. Therefore, when traveling to an unfamiliar forest, take a compass with you and use it in advance.
If there is a system of clearings in the forest, the north can be determined by the quarterly column. The numbering of the blocks is so that the plots with lower numbers are located in the north. The edge of the top of the quarter pillar, located between the two faces with the smallest numbers, points to the north.
Some forests are known as natural foci of encephalitis. The carriers of encephalitis are ticks, which are most dangerous in the spring and in the first half of summer. If it is known that ticks infected with encephalitis are found in the forest, measures must be taken while walking in the forest so that they do not creep under clothing. It is advisable to cover the hair with a hat. The ends of the sleeves and legs should fit snugly to the body..
Clothing and exposed skin should be periodically examined and ticks removed, and after returning from the forest, you need to undress and carefully examine the entire body. Are there any sucking ticks anywhere? To mites unhook, you need to lubricate them with petroleum jelly or vegetable oil, and then be sure to go to the doctor.
Based on materials from the book Mushrooms. We collect, grow, harvest.
Zvonarev N. M.