Hunting pits have a chamber in the ground (snow, in ice) or above the ground. Usually covered on top with a fake roof. This roof collapses as soon as the animal baited by the trap steps on it. Hunting pits are among the oldest hunting and hunting animals. They caught both ungulates, large predators, and birds..
Hunting pits for wolves, stray dogs, hare, arctic fox, ermine, weasel and small rodents, device, earthen stupa for catching grouse and grouse.
According to their design, hunting pits are divided into three groups:
Ice Trap Pits.
Ground or Mount Hunting Pits.
Some part of the riding pits should nevertheless be attributed to portable live traps. According to the methods of application, hunting pits are distinguished in the countryside and single. Hunting pits in the countryside arrange in the ground. Moreover, they are placed at the gates of the country or in places where the animal cannot otherwise go, as soon as in the abandoned passage occupied by this trap. To solitary pits without a fence attract bait, laid either in the pit or above it.
Earth and ice hunting pits dig an oblong shape, the size of an animal. In such a way that it could fit in it freely, but had no take-off run. The walls of the pit are taken with a picket fence or wattle fence with the down-pointed ends of the knots facing down. Currently, such methods of catching ungulates and large predators are everywhere prohibited and punishable by criminal law as generally dangerous and damaging the hunting economy..
Catching pits with an ice rink (wolf coils), for catching wolves and stray dogs, device.
In exceptional cases, it is permitted to set up open, unmasked hunting pits with an ice rink (wolf coils) designed to catch wolves and stray dogs. A steep slope (50-60) or a slope of a floodplain terrace with a height of 5 meters or more is used to arrange this trap. At the base of such a hill, a hole is dug 2 meters wide, 3-3.5 meters long and 3 meters deep and more.
Above its outer and lateral walls, peaks of a meter wide are made from slabs, directed obliquely towards the slope. They protect the pit from snow drifts and prevent the beast from jumping out of it. On the slope, the descent to the pit is cleared and leveled. And during established frosts, an ice rink is frozen on it. At the very top of the descent, a bait is fixed – a fallen calf, a horse or another animal. Be sure to belly towards the pit.
Access to the carrion from the side of the head and tail is blocked by felts, artificially frozen bushes, etc. The wolf almost always begins to devour carrion from the side of the belly. Therefore, going to the back, he, as a rule, jumps over the carcass and immediately rolls down the ice into the pit. The costs of making such pits are justified only in areas with a very high number of wolves or stray dogs..
Hunting pits on a hare, device.
A pit for a hare is arranged on hare paths (along the black-tropic path) and in the places where this animal lives. The size of the pit is 11 meters with a depth of 1.5 meters. A three-row blockhouse in the form of a truncated tetrahedral pyramid with a hunting hole of 60×60 cm is arranged above the pit of non-thick logs. From above it is covered with young shoots of aspen, willow, etc. Serving at the same time a hare bait and a false roof.
The animal, stepping on such a roof, falls down. He cannot jump out from there, since the walls of the log house interfere with him. On the Middle Volga, a snow pit was used to catch hares. They dug a hole in the snow, the walls of which were watered. The fake roof was made of straw. The butt ends of which were fixed on two sides by trapping pits so that the peaks converged in the middle of the trap hole.
Hunting pits on the arctic fox, device.
To catch Arctic foxes, hunting pits made from ice floes are used. In a pit arranged in ice or land and lined with ice on the edges, it is balanced on the horizontal axis of the ice with a bait frozen to it. The Arctic fox, having seen the bait from above through the neck and not suspecting the presence of a pit, jumps down to the bait on an ice floe and upset the balance of the latter with its weight. As a result, the ice floe is turned over, and the beast falls into the pit, and the ice floe again takes its former position. The catchability of such traps is low..
Hunting pits for ermine and affection, device.
To catch the ermine and weasel, a hunting pit is used – ice. In winter, water is frozen in a cylindrical bucket to a thickness of 3-5 cm. Then, a hole with a diameter of 4-5 cm is punched in the center of the horizontal ice surface formed, through which the remaining unfrozen water is poured. The bucket is brought into a warm room and after 15-20 minutes the ice cylinder is shaken out of it.
A little straw with grain is placed inside this cylinder and a live mouse is planted. Icefish put up close to housing. This aircraft is inconvenient to carry even over short distances. In the ermine habitats, the weasels prepared in this way, an ice cylinder with bait is buried in the snow flush with its surface. In fine snow, ice floes are placed directly on the ground and poured a mound of snow around.
The work of such a live trap is based on the fact that an ermine that has climbed into it cannot get back. If a hunter rarely checks these airplanes, then a small animal caught by his arrival is already dead. It freezes and, as a rule, freezes to a trap. In order not to spoil the skin of the animal, the trap is carefully broken, and the remnants of ice frozen to the hair are thawed in a warm room.
Ermine trap from an ordinary bottle with a capacity of 0.75 or 0.5 liters, device.
The pit group includes another interesting ermine trap. This trap is an ordinary bottle with a capacity of 0.75 or 0.5 liters. The bottles hit the bottom. The easiest way to do this is as follows. A bottle is brought in from the frost and placed on a hot plate, the bottom immediately and very smoothly flies off.
They put the bait in the bottle and stick it flush with the snow with its neck down. Sensing the bait, the ermine breaks into the bottle. He can no longer get out of it. The paws slide on the glass and due to the narrowness of the bottle, it is impossible for him to turn around in it. In this trap, the ermine quickly freezes.
Hunting pits – buckets or cylinders, for catching small rodents, device.
For catching small rodents, “hunting pits” are successfully used – buckets or cylinders with a diameter of 15-20 cm and a height of 30-70 cm. Cylinders are buried in the ground to the level of a path trodden by animals or grooves specially cleared in the grass, along which animals prefer to move.
For catching gray rats (pasyuk), a cylindrical bucket is equipped with a tipping lid made of light metal or plastic, balanced in a horizontal position. This lid is attached on an axis below the edges of the bucket by 5-7 cm, and a bait is attached to the middle. Part of the brick is placed at the bottom of the trapping cylinder and so much water is poured that the brick barely protrudes from it..
Gangways from the boards are attached to the cylinder, on which paths are smeared with bait. According to the gangplanks, the rats go up and, having found bait on the cylinder cover, jump to it and fall into the cylinder. Caught rats raise fuss in a bucket due to the dry place on the brick and thereby attract other rats.
Earth stupa for catching grouse and grouse, device.
To catch capercaillie and hazel grouse, a trap called an earthen stupa was used. It was usually installed at the places of bird’s adipose, on storages, etc. The structure of this trap is as follows. On two pegs driven in on both sides of a cone-shaped pit facing upward, the depth of which is 75-90 cm, a horizontal pole is installed at a certain distance from the ground.
A shorter pole is hung over its center on a short lace above the pit, in the splits at the ends of which bunches of some kind of berry (mountain ash, lingonberry, etc.) are inserted. The number of berries at the ends of the splits should be selected so that the short pole balanced on the lace in a horizontal position.
Attracted by the bait, the bird first sits on the upper perch. But since the bird cannot reach the bait from there, it jumps down to the lower perch. The perch immediately turns over, the bird slides down and falls into the pit, where it cannot get out.
Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of the Hunter.
Rudenko F.A., Semashko V.Yu., Cherenkov S.E., Matyunin M.M..