In addition to earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, that is, all that is associated with the underground bowels, the phenomena occurring in the atmosphere deserve special mention. The most dangerous of them are storms, hurricanes, tornadoes, leading to significant casualties and numerous destruction, sometimes surpassing those from earthquakes and tsunamis. Hurricanes are often to blame for environmental disasters, the number of victims of which is impossible to predict.
Hurricanes, tropical cyclones and typhoons, nature and origin, driving routes, submission and names of hurricanes.
Despite the fact that science has long been trying to find a way to influence the weather and rid humanity of a constant threat, things are still there. More or less learned to make only a long-term forecast of the occurrence of atmospheric phenomena and an assessment of the degree of danger.
possible in the Mediterranean, Black and even the Caspian seas.
Probably, for this reason, in another part of the Pacific, hurricanes so “love” New Orleans. They simply follow the tectonic fault along which the Mississippi River Valley is located. This fault runs along the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico, heading from Havana in Cuba to New Orleans in the United States..
The origin of hurricanes, cyclones and typhoons.
With the rapid nucleation of cyclones, low values of the total ozone content are observed. However, the increase in the number of hurricanes over the past several decades cannot be attributed only to global warming. Warming itself is similar to the result of some global processes associated with the Earth as a whole, and not with the human factor. Along with hurricane activity, there has been an increase in the number of other natural disasters not directly related to the ambient temperature.
If the connection between the active tectonic faults that emit gases and the areas of low ozone content is substantiated, it will become clear why the number of hurricanes increased. Emissions of hydrogen from the Earth’s liquid core increased. Over the emission zones, the ozone layer is being intensively destroyed. Through the emerging “holes” to the surface of the Earth penetrates more solar energy (radiation), which heats the water. Hence the cyclones.
In this regard, powerful destructive and terrible tropical storms and hurricanes should be seen primarily as inevitable and quite useful weather phenomena, with the help of which fast heat transfer is carried out. Without which the Earth will receive a “heatstroke”, and for its inhabitants it will be worse than any hurricane.
Of course, this does not mean that nothing can be done with their destructive power. For example, lightning is a mandatory and useful stage in the development of a thunderstorm. But American B. Franklin thought of a lightning rod (for reasons unknown to science, often called a lightning rod) and eliminated the danger.
Classification of hurricanes, cyclones and typhoons.
Europeans are faced with the phenomenon of tropical hurricanes in the Atlantic after America was discovered. Numerous ships went to the New World, but not everyone reached the coveted shores, dying from the fierce storms that British admiral F. Beaufort called hurricanes.
You can recall the classic work of W. Shakespeare “The Tempest”. It is a kind of historical evidence of the hurricane of 1609, which got in the way of the ships of the colonists who were forced to land on the uninhabited Bermuda. As for the terrible typhoons raging in the Pacific and Indian oceans, they have been known for a long time.
Admiral Beaufort in 1802 proposed a kind of classification. By storm, he meant a tropical cyclone with a wind speed of over 17 m / s. Under a hurricane – more than 33 m / s (they do not withstand and sails are torn). In a major hurricane, air moves at a speed of more than 50 m / s (200 km / h). Moreover, it was noted that the maximum wind speed could reach 550 km / h.
In 1831, a young American researcher W. Redfield for the first time brought together the collected information about hurricanes in the Atlantic, made a correct description of them as single spiral structures. He also created a circulation model of tropical cyclones..
However, a full and comprehensive study of this phenomenon, from which attempts to take control of the hurricane force began, became possible only in the 20th century. And the most complete – in the 2nd half. When satellites were launched into near-earth orbit. They helped to fix the stages of formation and development of hurricanes and determine their routes. A wide network of hurricane observation services is now operational..
It must be said that destructive hurricanes have led to considerable casualties before. However, at the end of the 20th century, the frequency and intensity of these natural disasters increased. Material damage began to amount to billions of dollars. And sacrifices among people – by many thousands. In this sense, the countries of the Caribbean, Central America and the United States suffer more. Here, the annual hurricane season awaits with fear. And recently, there have been whole chains of hurricanes that follow each other along the same path.
Nature and the origin of the hurricane.
The conditions for the emergence of a tropical cyclone turning into hurricanes are clearly defined. First of all, it is a high temperature of water – not lower than 26 degrees. The fact is that with the intensive evaporation of moisture from the surface of the ocean, the vortex is saturated with water vapor. Another is not too explicit, but also a necessary condition. This is a small difference in wind speed along the height of the vortex, which does not allow it to split into small cyclones.
Various additional factors are indicated. For example, a significant difference in temperature of the surface of the ocean, the concentration of cumulus clouds and more. There is reason to argue that there is a relationship between hurricanes and other weather events. The movement of winds in the stratosphere, the formation of rains in West Africa, and other phenomena.
Creating models for the development of hurricanes had its own specifics. At first, these were explanations of the essence of the phenomenon according to general assumptions without going into details. Then the physical conditionality of individual elements of the theory appeared, based on the well-known processes of heat transfer between the atmosphere and the ocean. However, another extreme has developed – excessive detail.
In fact, hurricanes are a kind of autonomously developing thermodynamic system with two temperature levels (a high level reflects the surface temperature of the water, and a low level is associated with the upper layer of the troposphere) and a coolant, in which the role of evaporating water.
Hurricanes are fueled by the thermal energy of the ocean. Therefore, when they move above water, their strength increases. However, on land they have nowhere to take energy from. Therefore, within a few days, hurricanes weaken and disappear. However, this time is enough to cause significant harm. The destructive power of this natural phenomenon lies in the huge wind speed. As well as in torrential rains leading to floods, mudflows and landslides.
Although the models of the developed storm, which is transformed first into hurricanes, and then into the main hurricane, adequately reflect real processes, nevertheless, scientists still have to smash their heads over some points.
So, questions remain open:
For what reason hurricanes appear in strictly defined places. In the Atlantic off the coast of West Africa. In the Pacific Ocean near the Philippines and Indonesia.
Why only some tropical cyclones become hurricanes. Moreover, at a certain point in time, while tropical cyclones of the same type do not cross the line separating them from turning into hurricanes?
In addition, the fundamental mechanism of cyclone formation is still unclear. Since at some point the thermodynamic system of the hurricane begins to work “on the machine”. It is assumed that this requires an initial shake. A kind of trigger, when pressed, which generates a primary autonomous vortex.
Attempts to subjugate hurricanes.
In the 1980s, when the necessary conditions for the occurrence of hurricanes were defined and “favorable” models for their development were developed for people, there were repeated attempts to use all available technical means to curb the hurricane, or at least reduce the danger. For example, they tried to “deprive” the element of power before it approached populated areas. Or change course.
A special part is distinguished in the center of the vortex. The so-called eye of a hurricane, with a diameter of more than 40 km, surrounded by an impenetrable curtain of clouds and clearly visible in photographs taken from the satellite.
Not far from some American states (Florida, Louisiana, Texas), where revelry of air elements often happens, hurricanes were tried to be affected through this eye. They fired at him with powerful charges. In particular, iodine substances were thrown there. To cause artificial rainfall. A similar practice exists in Moscow with the approaching rain clouds during various celebrations in the capital.
Despite the fact that hurricanes often come to the United States and terrorize local residents since the founding of the country, the authorities only bothered to provide assistance to the areas affected by the disaster only in the 1930s. Although the Americans were indignant at the inertia of state structures in the fight against the elements, systematic work in this regard was established only in the 1970s.
Scientists expected that without water vapor the mechanical force of the hurricane would dry out, but it wasn’t there. To reduce the temperature in the hurricane, icebergs were even placed on its way, hastily towed from the shores of Greenland. Hurricanes seemed not to notice obstacles. They were so insignificant compared to his gigantic vitality..
Attempts to dispel hurricanes by brutal methods (using pyrotechnic bombs with silver iodide) made by the U.S. Air Force between 1963 and 1983 yielded no results.
It was only possible to understand that in order to deal with hurricanes, a thorough study of their properties and emphasis on careful forecasting involving spacecraft are required. Why they began to use specialized meteorological satellites located in geostationary and low orbits. But this time, too, nature could not be outwitted..
Names of hurricanes.
They began to give the hurricanes human names (Katrina, Jeanne, Rita) not at all out of love for them, but in order not to get confused. This is quite easy to do, given the simultaneous development of many tropical cyclones in the same region of the world. When forecasting weather and issuing storm alerts and warnings, it’s possible to avoid just an easily remembered name..
Until scientists thought of a modern naming system, hurricanes were called randomly and randomly. Sometimes a hurricane received the name of a saint on whose day the tragedy occurred. For example, Hurricane Santa Anna, who visited one of the cities of Puerto Rico in the 1st quarter of the 19th century. Sometimes they were called by the area where they caused the greatest destruction. And sometimes the name was given even by external signs. The trajectory of Hurricane Pin 4, which erupted in 1935, looked like an object of the same name.
A very original hurricane naming algorithm was developed by Australian meteorologist K. Ragz. He proposed calling hurricanes the names of members of parliament who did not vote for funding research programs related to meteorology.
Very often, names were given to atmospheric vortices during the Second World War. Then the experts of the weather service of the US Air Force and Navy tracked the appearance of typhoons in the north-west of the Pacific Ocean. In order to avoid confusion, they came up with calling these natural phenomena the names of wives or girlfriends. At the end of the war, American meteorologists compiled a list of short, simple, easily pronounced and easily remembered female names.
A complete hurricane naming system.
A complete hurricane naming system appeared in 1950. At first, instead of female names, they tried to use the phonetic army alphabet, but after 3 years they returned to the old idea. Subsequently, women’s names began to be used to indicate any manifestations of cyclones: hurricanes, typhoons, storms.
There was a need to come up with how exactly the names will be chosen. For example, the 1st typhoon of the year received the right to be called by a name starting with the 1st letter of the alphabet. 2nd hurricane – from the 2nd letter, etc. The list for typhoons contained 84 items. It was supplemented by male names in 1979. Since there are several local zones where hurricanes form, there are also several lists.
For example, for Atlantic hurricanes for 6 years, use 6 alphabetical lists of 21 names each. In the next 6-year period, everything repeats. Over 21 hurricanes annually forced to connect the Greek alphabet.
The names of the hurricanes especially noteworthy for their destructive power, as, for example, was the case with Katrina, are completely deleted from the list, indicating others instead. Thus, a particular hurricane acquires a permanent name that is not used to denote other manifestations of the elements..
The traditions of the Japanese do not allow women to give terrible typhoons names. Therefore, they use the names of various trees, products, animals and flowers. Tropical cyclones originating in the northern Indian Ocean have no names.