Hyperthermia, overheating of the body, symptoms, first aid. Heatstroke. Burns.

Hyperthermia, overheating, this is the state of the body in conditions of high ambient temperature with excess heat generation over the heat transfer of the body, accompanied by an increase in body temperature and dysfunction of the vital systems of the body, especially the central nervous system. 

Hyperthermia, overheating of the body, symptoms, first aid. Heatstroke. Burns.

The main reaction of the body is aimed at eliminating overheating by increasing heat transfer, the skin vessels expand, the heartbeat and breathing become more frequent, blood flow increases, perspiration increases and so on. With increased physical work, sweating can be 5-6 liters per day, even in cold weather. In high temperature conditions, perspiration can reach 10-12 liters per day.

, for example, from synthetic materials, as well as the lack of wind and high humidity in hot weather.

First medical aid for hyperthermia.

It consists in the withdrawal of the victim from the overheating zone, rubbing the skin with cool water, applying ice bubbles to the inguinal and axillary regions, plentiful cold drink. It is necessary to replenish the loss of electrolytes, mainly sodium (sodium chloride) and potassium (mineral water, raisins, dried apricots, bananas). If possible, it is necessary to inject saline intravenously, with headache analgin, with convulsions and agitation, sedatives.

Direct and prolonged exposure to sunlight on an uncovered head causes plethora of cerebral vessels, and subsequently loss of consciousness. First begins dizziness, headache, darkening in the eyes, excruciating thirst, nausea, and then vomiting. At the first appearance of these signs, it is urgently necessary to cover the head with something or find a shadow, since with a progressing state it is already impossible to help yourself. Signs of heat stroke are similar to sunstroke, and therefore first aid is reduced to creating the same conditions: shadow, coolness, a cold compress on the head, plenty of water and peace.


May be caused by flames, hot liquids, vapors, gases or strong sunlight. The intensity of burns depends on the temperature and duration of exposure. It makes no sense to talk about the degrees of burns and their classification, since this in an extreme situation will not bring relief to the victim anyway. Small burns cause soreness and a burning sensation in the affected area. With burns of large areas of the body, in addition to local phenomena, general ones also arise: headache, decline in heart activity, general weakness or anxiety, and sometimes cramps. Temperature rises.

When a burn burns, the first thing that breaks out is clothing that needs to be put out. It is best to throw yourself on the ground and try to put out the fire by rolling on the ground. If there is a pond nearby, you must throw yourself into the water. Then immediately remove the clothes and, if there is no burns on the body, extinguish the smoldering areas of clothing with earth, sand or water. But if the body is affected, then everything depends on the degree of damage. To reduce the consequences, and sometimes even completely remove small burns, you can use your own urine, abundantly wetting the affected parts of the body.

In no case should you pierce the bubbles or remove the thin burnt skin surface! Healing is best done in an open way, when a dressing is not applied to the burned area, but medicinal herbs of anti-burn action and wound healing herbs are applied: plantain, coltsfoot, sphagnum, Icelandic lichen, nettle, dried mussel, grasshopper, fireweed, plunya, yarrow and The crust formed on the burned places after some time will well protect the burned surface from infection with pyogenic bacteria. When the temperature rises, it is advisable to drink a lot.

Attention! In no case should oil be burned with any oils. Ointments and oils are used in the final stages of burn treatment.

Based on materials from the book Encyclopedia of Survival.
Chernysh I. V.

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