I will talk about the American military project – a network of mobile rocket launch sites for nuclear missiles, control caps and ice caps Greenland. The project was not completed Greenland lasted several years. The train has been mounted on the ice. Only nature has been prevented and even a fantastic project. It is a fact that it will be a matter of course for closure.
In the late 50s and the 20th century, Soviet Union embarked on the deployment of intercontinental ballistic launch vehicles (ICBM) nuclear warheads. In response, the United States has deployed its own ICBMs. First Atlases and Titans, then Minutemen.
However, these missiles had two flaws. First of all, they were placed in a relatively vulnerable, easily destructible position, existing only in the shooting of the enemy. And, secondly, the missiles of the United States Air Force, but not the Army.
The United States was deprived, since all rocket programs were taken from her and transferred Air force and NASA. Hen missile base protection. Of course, the army possessed tactical nuclear weapons, she needed strategic rocket long range.
It was then that a new idea arose. In 1960 Army Engineering Research Center The Iceworm Project was proposed. According to the plans of the Greenland, it’s not a bad idea.
It is possible to play with it. According to the army command rockets, were less vulnerable than Air Force missile launch complexes, while having a safer communication with staffs, compared to missile carriers.
The US military first arrived in Greenland during World War II. It has been noted that the country has been given a green light. The United States of America has been deployed to the United States of America.
Greenland got so important strategic importance, that the United States is even offered to him from Denmark in 1946. military bases, It was not signed in 1951. It was signed in 1951. nuclear weapons on these bases, moreover, it wasn’t even intentionally raised.
By the way, work in Greenland has been difficult. The ice cap is a small island of the coastal strip. The temperature reaches minus 50 degrees, strong winds blow, reigns in winter. polar night.
But the island’s position was the most important airbase thule, on the far northwest tip. A small airfield has been used for years since. In the event of war, B-36 and B-47 bombers taking it out in Tula, taking it out of course on targets located in the western part of the USSR.
US interest in accommodation in Tula nuclear weapons traced before signing the contract. Thule couldn’t be strategic bombers after their return after strikes on the USSR. New possibility of accommodation in 1957 medium-range missiles. Newspapers filed this offer as an unofficial offer from Denmark, but the Danes expressed their reluctance nuclear weapon.
However, while public refusals were harsh, informal statements were completely different. So we asked you to be informed nuclear weapon in Greenland. Five days later, he wasn’t anticipated.
It’s not a problem. nuclear weapons at the airbase in Tula.
It is a strategic concern for the ICBMs. rockets can you be persuaded to place a large nuclear arsenal in Greenland.
The Ice Worm began in 1960 with research by Army Engineering Research Center. The authors of the tunnels are sweating away from the ice. The tunnels were supposed to connect missile launch complexes, It is located at least four miles away. This is up to 30 psi. Overpressure is a measure of the strength of an explosion. 1 psi breaks the glass, 2 psi breaks the glass walls The latter begin to receive damage at a pressure of only 10 psi.
Six hundred Aisman missiles it would be enough to destroy 80% of the targets in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Rockets had to move between starting complexes through the tunnels on small trains. The whole network was controlled from sixty command centers, each of which withstand overpressure up to 100 psi. Power supply command centers and launch sites should have come from small nuclear reactors. The area of 52,000 square miles.
Of course, it was much less than the 300 psi. ice cap. Three megaton bombs. And if the distance between launch sites it would have been increased to 9.8 miles (about 16 kilometers), but already one hundred megaton. But it couldn’t have been 2100 launch sites in 5 years. Russian would simply not have time to build bombs, keeping up with the number rocket launches.
10 m / h distance of circular Min 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 The launch of the enemy fire.
To service the complex, 11,000 people were required, including 400 Arctic Rangers and 200 Nike-Hercules operators of air defense systems MIM-14. The supply would be carried out by airplanes equipped with skis.
It was $ 2.37 billion dollars (at current prices it is already $ 17.25 billion), including annual expenses in $ 409 million (now $ 2.98 billion) dollars. It was seen as a surmountable obstacle.
Airborne assault force. It has been noted that the system has been reduced. And, unlike submarines, he didn’t want to make it. Besides, rockets possessed greater accuracy and power. It’s a green light.
Founding of Camp Century
As the army planned to deploy atomic weapons under the ice of greenland Following this June, 150 miles from Tula was founded research station, called Camp century according to the project, under the ice. Swiss rotary installations are designed for digging trenches. It was up to 33 cubic meters of snow.
It is a trench over 300 meters, it is a trench, it is called “Main Street”.
After penetration, it was covered with arches of corrugated iron.
While the car was assembled in a wooden frame lined with prefabricated shields. The air gap between the floor and the snow base. It remains the same.
In addition, for additional heat removal, ventilation holes were dug to the surface. It was also conducted electricity, heating and plumbing. The pipes were covered with a thick layer of insulation.
There were also a lot of bricks. In this way, erected walls built wooden door spans.
A year after construction began, in July 1960, Camp century A small 400-ton nuclear reactor PM-2A was delivered. He was in the port of the ship, he was overloaded Camp century dragged a pair of tracked tractor.
The construction of residential barracks. The framework for the metal was brought from Tula on tractors.
Separately, a vertical evacuation exit from the reactor was constructed.
Reactor was designed and built by ALKO within Army Atomic Energy Program and produced a power of 1.56 MW. The reactor contained 37 fuel rods, located in 49 cells. The uranium dioxide is enclosed in a stainless steel case. The five rods were regulatory and consisted of Europa oxide. In addition to the reactor power plant – turbine, generator and control panels.
It took a total of 33 months for the installation of the system to take place. Calorific energy consumption does not exceed 500 kW per hour, which was only 30 percent of the reactor capacity. During the operation of the reactor was developed 178 tons of radioactive water, which poured directly on the island. In addition to electricity, from the reactor received 459 kilograms of steam per hour, 38 tons of fresh water per day.
The construction of the camp was completed in October 1960, after that year; 7,920,000 dollars of which 5,700,000 accounted for atomic reactor (in prices of 1960). Now it is 57.5 million and 41.5 million respectively. There is a living room, a living room, a living room, a living room, a living room, a living room, a living room, bed infirmary, a laundry room, a cold food store, and water storage tanks. Communications and communications centers, a diesel power plant, an office building, a chapel and a hairdresser.
In the camp scientific journals and that was it official appointment. Since August 1960, he has been co-hosted by junior scientific assistants. For the 5th month, he became a geophysicist after graduation.
In the case of the project. Ice worm. Small wheeled trains were launched through the tunnels – the prototypes of the future missile carriers.
In early 1962 US Department of Defense but it’s not recommended Camp century for political purposes to appease the European allies. The European Union invasion of the late 50s. The United States was confident in its strategic superiority over the USSR. In the possible atomic war they won they could answer nuclear strike it has been determined that american nuclear umbrella. However, it couldn’t have been able to symmetrically. Western Europe from Soviet troops?
America was ready to share its nuclear weapons bypassing laws, primarily Act mcmahon. In fact, the act was not formally violated, because legally warheads American standards were passed.
The Ministry of Defense presented two plans. strategic operations – of the missile submarines and NATO ships. It’s not always the case. atomic arsenal. The five strategic missile carrier submarines Under NATO command, while maintaining US launch procedures
Paul Nitz recalled Ice worm. At the beginning of 1962 a group was formed for analysis, consisting of politicians, but not the air force. The group concluded that Ice worm well protected and can cause counter attack, after the attack fleet or ground-based missile systems. In addition, it is located in politically insensitive areas. However, the complex is poorly protected from conventional forces. In addition, their report to the host atomic weapons.
Despite all the talk, the true purpose Ice worm never reported to the danish government or the public. Most likely, they would refuse atomic weapons in tula, absolutely not comparable to the island of giant missile base.
Reasons for closing the camp
But even the American politicians. For the project By 1962, it became clear that the movements of ice significantly exceed the calculated ones. To keep the tunnels intact, we’ve had to trim and remove snow every month. The volume of snow 120 tons per month. If this amount is accounted for millions of tons, then there are millions of tons. It has been shifted to the walls of the buildings. In this case, the reactor was dismantled, and in 1966, the camp was completely abandoned. It absorbed the horizon in 1969.
Denmark until 1997, until it came across Danish Institute of International Relations, when conducting archival research. It was a shock for Copenhagen, primarily the scale of US ambitions. However, the public outcry has been given.
Where did the exact coordinates are known? However, over the past 50 years, the ice has to be completely crushed. Of course, the winds in Greenland could still remain on the surface. You can find objects that you can find out. Possible trip to the location Camp century can carry, only memorial character.
Project &# 171; Ice worm&# 187;: The Secret of Greenland