The type of shelter and shelter that you will do in an emergency or extreme situation is determined by local conditions and the materials available, as well as how long you will need it.
Improvised shelters and shelters from branches, roots and fallen trees, the use of natural recesses in the ground.
As a direct protection against adverse weather conditions, arrange temporary shelter until you build something more suitable and reliable. If you after the accident decided to stay in place to wait for help, you can build something quite substantial and improve your shelter, as time and energy will allow. On the other hand, those who went camping in search of salvation will be able to make temporary shelters in each parking lot..
They can even be carried with you if they are light enough. Moreover, in the next parking lot there may not be suitable opportunities for organizing shelter and shelter. For the sick and wounded, of course, it is worth doing a more thorough shelter. Where they could have a good rest in order to regain their strength, or when necessary, wait for suitable weather so that they could hit the road. Use this time to collect water and food..
Shelters and shelters without materials.
If you don’t have any materials for shelter and shelter at hand, use all weather protection options. Hanging rocks, slopes, etc., which would help to shelter from wind or rain. Engage natural windbreakers in their hiding places in haste. On perfectly flat terrain, sit with your back to the wind. Fold all the equipment in the back as a shield from the wind.
Branch Shelters and Shelters.
Branches that go down to the ground, or branches that partially break off, use as a basis for protection from the wind. But they should not be broken enough to fall on your head. Attach to them, weave other branches to make the defense more dense. Coniferous trees are more suitable for such a design than deciduous trees, since they will have to be compacted or twisted less to protect themselves from rain. A similar shelter can be made by tying a broken branch or branch to the base of another branch in the place where it leaves the trunk.
Shelter and shelter from the roots of trees.
The protruding, branching roots and the formed pit between the roots of a fallen tree form a good protection against wind and rain. If they are well located relative to the wind. If you close the space between the protruding roots, this will increase the effectiveness of the shelter and provide a good basis for its improvement using other materials.
Emergency use for sheltering and sheltering natural deepening in the ground.
Even a shallow pit will provide some protection from the wind and may save effort in building the shelter. However, take measures to divert surface water from it. Especially if it is a pit on a slope, otherwise you can wake up in a puddle. Make a roof so that rain does not get inside, and less heat goes outside.
Several strong branches laid on top of the pit can withstand a small log laid across them. On this log, in turn, it is possible to lay shorter branches and sticks so that roof slopes are obtained, along which water could drain without getting inside. Seal the whole structure with turf or branches with leaves.
Fallen trees as shelters and shelters in emergency and extreme situations.
A log or trunk of a fallen tree by itself is a good protection from the wind if they are located at an appropriate angle to the direction of the wind. If the trunk is not very thick, you can choose the ground on the leeward side of it. This log is also an excellent support for the slope of the roof from branches and branches.
Shelters and shelters from thin trees.
If there is suitable vegetation, select two rows of thin trees, clear the space between them and tie their tops so that you get a frame for covering. Fix the lower edges of the coating on the ground with stones or logs, decks, etc. A similar shelter can be made of flexible tree branches, bending them to the ground. If you do not have a suitable cover, choose or place trees closer to each other. Bind them with twigs and tighten with fern leaves or turf.
Drainage and ventilation in shelters and emergency shelters.
A gutter made in the ground around any shelter where you are located, below or at ground level, will help keep your shelter dry. Quick shelters and shelters usually have many holes into which air can penetrate. Do not try to close them all ventilation is important.
Stone barriers as shelters and shelters in an emergency.
Shelter will be more comfortable if you can not only lie there, but also sit. Therefore, increase its height by making a short wall of stones around your chosen cavity or pit. Close the seams between the stones (especially in the bottom row) using turf and foliage, mixing them with dirt (ground with water) and drain rainwater around the shelter.
Based on the book Complete Survival Guide for Extreme Situations, in the Wild, on Land and at Sea.