Improvised tent-type shelters, wigwams, walls, screens and panels of branches and poles, an open sloping shelter.

With a raincoat, raincoat, tent, piece of plastic film or tarpaulin, in an emergency you can easily and easily make temporary shelters and light shelters of several types, until you can build something more capital. 

Improvised tent-type shelters, wigwams, walls, screens and panels of branches and poles, open inclined shelter.

Use in a complex with a nursing shelter or make a separate shelter with the profile of an unfinished triangle, so that its closed part is directed against the wind. Press or fasten the edges of the cloth with pegs. If the material is large enough, wrap part of it as a substrate under the litter in the direction of the slope so that surface water does not fall on it.

Use dry grass or bracken as a soft litter. Do not lie down on cold or wet ground. A dense fabric, even without being waterproof, will protect against rain if you pull it at a sufficiently large angle. Make two shelters-canopies a few centimeters one above the other. Rain can rarely penetrate two such layers. To prevent water from entering the fabric, do not touch the inside during rain..

Wigwams.

Best known in their North American form, wigwams are found in many cultures. The fastest way to build a shelter in the form of a wigwam is to install at an angle to each other three or more support poles with vertices connected together so that they form a conical structure. They can be tied on the ground, and then installed in the right place and covered with skins, birch bark or linen. Leave a ventilation hole at the top. Angles of greater magnitude give a larger shelter area, but rainwater is worse.

Parachute Wigwam.

From a parachute suspended in the middle, it turns out almost ready to lodge. Fix the lower edges with pegs. Parachute fabric can be used to cover the wigwam frame, but it’s even easier to just hang it on a tree.

Improvised tent-type shelters, wigwams, walls, screens and panels of branches and poles, an open sloping shelter.
bonfire to get maximum heat.

Walls and screens from poles.

Walls can easily be made of poles or sticks stacked on top of each other between paired racks driven into the ground, the tops of which, if possible, are connected to each other. Close the slots well so that the wind and rain do not penetrate. It is good to use such structures as side walls of a shelter in order to close the entrance aperture or as a heat-reflecting screen behind a fire and a hearth. If there are no large stones at hand, use this design to block the water flow. To build a capital wall in this way, increase the distance between the uprights, make two vertical rows of poles and fill the space between them with ground as you work.

Wicker Shelter Panels.

Do woven panels for the roof or walls from flexible rods, stems, grass and leaves of sufficient length, either whole, or if they are too large, then divided into strips for a more dense weaving. First, make the frame of less flexible materials, either directly in place or as a separate panel for subsequent installation. Tie the main supporting elements together. Weave other, more flexible materials into the design.

If there are no binding materials at hand, drive the uprights into the ground and weave flexible rods between them. Seal with earth and grass. If there are too few suitable rigid beams, weave flexible stems of climbing plants between the posts. Very large leaves, tied or pressed from below by a load or bent on the stems of climbing plants, can be arranged overlapping each other, like tiles or shingles, so that rainwater drains without getting inside.

You can take long grass in bunches and bind them, alternately laying ends on top of each other so that a wicker is obtained. Or use a birch bark to make an impromptu shingle. Make horizontal cuts of the bark along the entire circumference at a distance of 60 centimeters from each other and carefully remove the bark. On the frame, fix pairs of closely spaced sticks or stems of a climbing plant. The upper ends of such shingles are inserted between paired crossbeams, and the lower ones lie on the upper edges of the bark plates located below.

Based on the book Complete Survival Guide for Extreme Situations, in the Wild, on Land and at Sea.
John Wiseman.

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